Coin News

There are only three million BTC left
Pompiano noted that there are currently only three million BTC mines left. Tweets have sought to raise awareness about the world-renowned crypto:

“18 million Bitcoins will be released this Friday. There are only 3 million movies left. Let’s do this hashtag so the world can learn about Bitcoin.”

That’s not surprising to Pomfillano, given that he told CNBC’s Squawk Box that more than half of his net worth was in Bitcoin in August. Which indicates that so far it is promised 17,997,150 BTC – according to BitcoinBlockHalf Bitcoin data – and some encrypted BTCs are over 21 million.


The rewards of bitcoin blocking will be reduced
As the number of coins left over for Bitcoin blockchain security continues to decline, so does half of BTC. The event displays the amount of bitcoin that is generated in half of each new block.

According to BitcoinBlockHalf estimates, May 14, 2020 – likely to be an exceptional time for Bitcoin blocking – will reduce the block’s remuneration from 12.5 to 6.25. The site notes that 85.7% of all currencies have already been dissolved.

As the number of coins is still mined and reduced, competition for their perceptions is likely to increase. As QuintelGraph unveiled at the end of September, Bitcoin marked the first time in hashtag currency history, with a record 102 pounds.

Big scandal with a rocking chair

Nothing motivates the general public more than someone who is trying to charge for what was once free. And yet, this is exactly what entrepreneur Oscar F. Speight tried to make in New York's parks brilliant in the summer of 1901.

It all started in Central Park on June 22, 1901, when a group of people noticed rows of bright green rocking chairs along the park's shopping center, next to the casino. Usually there were rows of uncomfortable hard wooden benches in the same place, so the park was really very pleased to sit, swing and enjoy a wonderful summer day.

Suddenly, two broad-shouldered men approached those sitting on a rocking chair. They wore the same gray suits, and on their shoulders were black bags with straps. People in gray told the sitters that these are private chairs that can be rented, and that if they want to continue sitting, they must fork out five cents a day to get better seats, and three cents a day for places that weren’t preferential. standing in the park. Some people vacated their seats, but others paid. People who were not physically thrown away. When they asked why, the people in gray replied: "These are Mr. Chair's chairs."

This new phenomenon was widely and very repeatedly covered in the daily newspapers of New York the next day. And the man in the hot spot was the president of the Park Commission – one George S. Clausen.

It seemed that a few days earlier, Klausen had visited in his official office of the Park Commission a man named Oscar F. Speight. Speight seemed amiable enough, and he offered Clausen an offer that Clausen did not see in acceptance. It seems Spate said he wants to place comfortable rocking chairs in parks all over New York. And for this privilege, Speight offered the city a net amount of $ 500 a year.

“They do it in London and Paris,” said Speight to Klausen. “And that will undoubtedly be good for New York.”

Clausen had no problems with Speight's thinking, so he readily agreed; although without prior consultation with another member of the park commission. As a result, Clausen graced Spate with a five-year contract, allowing Spate to place his rocking chairs in all of New York's parks. With the ink on the contract still not dry, Speight immediately ordered 6,000 chairs worth about $ 1.50 each. If Speight's predictions are correct, these chairs will bring him approximately $ 250-300 a day.

A Spate employee who asked the journalist for anonymity said Spate had already invested $ 30,000 in his new venture. The reporter did the math, and he came up with rocking chairs that cost Spate just around $ 9,500. Tell me, please, where did the remaining $ 20,500 go?

Spate spokesman said nothing to enlighten the reporter.

“Well, there are always costs in such things,” he told the scribe.

The New York press knew the story when it hit them in the face, so they were able to track Data in its offices in the St. James building, on Broadway and 26th Street, near Madison Square Park. Answering journalists' questions, Speit was indignant.

“I will put as many chairs as they allow,” Speight told reporters. “The servants who charge are paid by me. They will be dressed in gray uniforms, and each will look after about fifty chairs from 10 to 22 hours. A five-cent ticket entitles the holder to sit at either five cents, or a chair for three cents in any park at any time during that day. But a chair holder for three cents can only sit in a chair for three cents. "

Speight also told reporters that he is doing a favor on the city, as paying for chairs will keep unwanted (read – poor) from parks, keeping parks clean and free of shoots that leave a mess in their path.

The outrage from the New York press and philanthropists became quick. Randolph Guggenheimer, President of the Municipal Council, said that "he sees no good reason to allow individuals to occupy the park and make money using such a scheme." The Central Federal Union of New York sent a press statement condemning both Data and Clausen for their "heinous acts." The New York Tribune wrote in an editorial: “This is just another example of the hopeless stupidity of the current Park Commission.” The New York Journal also wrote an editorial advocating for “the right of poor people to sit in a public park.” However, the New York Times did not see any problems in what Spate did if "prices were properly regulated."

Park ombudsman Klausen tried to defend his actions by telling the press that people always had enough free benches, except, of course, Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. The New York Tribune indicated that these were the days with the greatest demand for park spots.

When this issue became monumental, Speight became more decisive. He ordered more chairs to be placed in Central Park, as well as in Madison Square, which was across the street from his office. Some people were paid for sitting, and those who did not were unceremoniously thrown out of the armchairs by the bandits in gray suits.

Things calmed down for several days, since few people protested, paying for places. Everything changed on Wednesday, January 26, 1901, when the air temperature in the city rose above 90 degrees. By Saturday, temperatures had risen to 94 degrees, and nineteen people had died in New York due to the unbearable heat. The temperature reached 97 degrees on Sunday, making this the hottest day in the history of the Weather Bureau since June 1871. On Sunday, another fifteen people died, and on Tuesday, when the temperature rose to 99 degrees, two hundred deaths were recorded. On Wednesday, there were 317 heat-related deaths between June 28 and July 4, resulting in 382 heat-related deaths in Manhattan alone, and 521 hospitalizations due to prostration. In just a seven-day period, there were 797 deaths and 891 heat in the New York metropolitan area, which included Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens and Richmond. Everything was so bad that on July 2, the drivers of the city ambulance hospital worked without a break for 24 hours.

Due to the heat in the city caused by the heat, beaten people rushed to the city parks, which were now ordered by the Parking Commission to stay open all night. When people arrived at the parks, they found that there were no more empty benches, and those that were still present in the parks were moved to the sun, which made them too hot to sit on them. However, the green Spate chairs sat in the shade, making them more attractive to people struggling with suffocating heat.

On Saturday, July 6, the situation reached a boiling point. The man was sitting in one of Speight's chairs in Madison Square Park, and he absolutely refused to pay the five cents demanded by Speight's man Thomas Talley. Finally, Tully pulled out a chair from under the man, and followed the bedlam. An angry crowd surrounded Tully and started shouting: “Lynch him! He is a man of Speight! ”

Tully made his way through the crowd and rushed across the street to a hotel on Fifth Avenue, where he rushed upstairs and locked himself in a room. The crowd gathered in the hotel lobby for about 30 minutes when the police arrived and escorted Tally from the hotel to where he called home.

Later that day, when the inhabitants of the park were still raging, another of the men of Speight evicted a boy who was sitting on one of Speith's chairs in Madison Square Park and refused to pay five cents. An angry mob attacked the man of Data, and when the policeman tried to intervene, he was thrown into the park's fountain. Spate's man fled from the park in fear, and after that enthusiastic people began to take turns sitting in Spate's chairs (without paying, of course). When evening came, a few people brought Space's chairs home with them as trophies to decorate their own living rooms.

The next day, Sunday, July 7, anxiety moved to Central Park, where a huge crowd gathered, challenging Data and its green rocking chairs. While two of Speight's men were guarding Speight's precious chairs, the crowd walked dangerously close to the chairs, repeating the tune “Sweet Annie Moore”:

We do not pay anymore!

We do not pay anymore!

No more we pay for the park

There are no more chairs!

Clausen took a break

One summer day.

And now he is not

The commissar is no more!

When the crowd gathered in chairs, people who had already paid for the right to sit, abandoned the chairs and fled from the park. One of the people in Spain quit his job on the spot, and he also escaped from the park. However, another of the men of Spait continued to try to collect fees for the chair. But he also quit his job after an angry old woman poked him in the back of the head with a hairpin.

On Monday, July 8, almost constant riots occurred in Madison Square Park. About a dozen boys walked from chair to chair, sitting for as long as they wished, accompanied by a restless crowd threatening to hang any of the men who tried to collect any fees. A brave and reckless Spate employee named Otto Berman hit one boy in the face. The crowd surrounded Berman, and his life was saved by six policemen who quickly threw Berman out of the park to a safe place. Everything got out of hand in Madison Square Park, police were called from a nearby police station on West Thirtieth Street.

At the end of the day, the two men took two of Chair's chairs and offered a thousand dollars to any of the people in Spain who could evict them from their chairs. Two of the men of Jump jumped up and tried to get a reward, but they were quickly beaten half to death by two men who turned out to be featherweight world champion Terry McGovern, a former fighter and then boxing ring. Announcer Joe Humphries. Police stormed the park and arrested six rioters who they cuffed to a police station on Thirtieth Street. A crowd of about 200 people followed the police and the arrested, marching within walking distance and chanting:

Spate! Spate!

Clausen and Speight!

Spate! Spate!

Clausen and Speight!

On Tuesday, July 9, riots continued in both Madison Square and Central Park. However, New York City police chose a different tactic when Police Commissioner Michael Murphy ordered them not to help any of the people in the Court trying to collect duties and not to arrest any rioters unless magistrates issued warrants to arrest individual rioters. At this point, several magistrates told the press that they would not issue any warrants, which gave the rebels (wink) a good intention to do what they liked with the Chair's chairs.

By this time, President of the Park Commission George S. Clausen was figuratively tearing his hair from his own head. Initially stating that he could do nothing with the situation without the permission of the rest of the members of the Park Commission, Klausen turned and said that since he was the one who confirmed the contract to Speight, he could also withdraw Speight. Treaty with New York. Spate quickly received a response, having received an injunction "restricting Mr. Clausen and the Park Commission from interfering with his current contract with New York."

In desperation, Speight ordered his people not to put their chairs on the ground, but to pile them in piles in Madison Square and Central Park and rent them out only if they paid for them in advance. However, as soon as someone rented one of Speight's chairs, the crowd grabbed a chair and smashed it into small pieces.

Soon the crowd, tired of Data and its chairs, began to bombard the Speed ​​men with stones and stones, when the Speed ​​men hid behind and under the piled chairs. Speight himself entered both parks to try to fulfill his contract, but both times he was forced to flee, as he was chased by stones and stones flying past his head.

Finally, on July 11, a hero named Max Radt, vice president of Jefferson State Bank, entered the State Supreme Court and received a restraining order forbidding Speed ​​and the Commission of the Park to force people to sit on the green pitch of Speed. chairs. Speight, realizing that he was beaten, quickly put all his chairs in storage. A few days later, Speight announced to the press that he was “abandoning his project.”

Oscar F. Speight disappeared from view and never saw or heard him again in New York.

A few weeks later, the Parks Commission issued a press release for New York newspapers stating that the President of the Parks Commission, George C. Clausen, had used his personal money to buy what was left of the green color of Data. rocking chairs. These chairs were to be housed in parks throughout New York. On each of these chairs, there was a stenciled inscription “For exclusive use by women and children.”

And right above the declaration, the word "FREE" was written in capital letters.

Vacation spots for Santa Barbara movies

Holiday rentals in Santa Barbara are often interested in movie locations and for good reason. There are many iconic places in Santa Barbara that are found in film and television shows. Read on to find out why our fair city is the place of choice for so many popular productions, and how you can learn and visit famous movie locations in the Santa Barbara area.

Many visitors experience a strong sense of familiarity or belonging the first time they explore Santa Barbara. We are not going to discount someone's claims to psychic abilities or a past life living on the Riviera of America, but most likely they saw one of more than 200 different films. and television programs filmed in whole or in part here over the past 100 years.

Don't leave your vacation looking for places famous on the silver screen until you read the full list of the Santa Barbara Film Commission. You have probably seen at least one or more of the following popular works:

2009 It's hard

2006 Pirates of the Caribbean III

2006 There Will Be Blood

2006 crazy

2006 Bachelor

2006 Top Chef 2, Bravo

2005 Monk

2005 Oprah Winfrey Show

2004 Flight of the Phoenix

2004 monster in law

2004 Sideways

2003 Hidalgo

Seabiscuit 2003

2003 Sorority Life

2001 X Files

2000 Blinded

1999 Double Danger

1998 Star Trek: Rebellion

1996 Long kiss, good night

1996 G.I. Jane

1996 Face / Off

1995 Nixon

1994 Walk in the clouds

1994 Congo

1994 Young Indy / Hollywood Follies

1993 Pelican Brief

1990 Rocketeer

1984 Scarface

1980 Postman always rings twice

1978 Frisco Kid

1967 graduate

1964 Batman Pilot

1923 The Ten Commandments

1914 Polina's Dangers

it's complicated

The last known film to appear in our region was the romantic comedy Meryl Streep and Alec Baldwin “Difficult”.

The director of the film, Nancy Meyers, chose Santa Barbara for a specific reason, with which any tourist or indigenous movie lover will be able to communicate. In an interview with Santa Barbara magazine, Meyers said that “Santa Barbara felt good for many reasons – a natural beauty, wherever you look, the mental state that I feel when I'm there, calm … This feeling is close to a good life, how can you get. "

This is a complex, beautiful film that seems to showcase our beautiful city with its best advantage.

The working word seems to be here. Most were shot on a sound stage in Brooklyn in mid-winter. Only three short scenes were shot here.

  • This is a scene in which Jane runs around Montecito, and her architect friend Adam stops in his car. It was actually filmed in her little burg, as you can see from the unique wooden street signs. If you want to take a walk in Montecito Jane’s shoes, check out The Four Seasons Resort The Biltmore, which may have been an inspiration for the hotel, where Jane and her ex-husband arranged an interrupted date.
  • When Jane lies in wait for her therapist at the fictional medical center of Santa Barbara, she actually hides at the back entrance to Anacapa Street in El Paseo, a Spanish-style open shopping mall.
  • While we have a dizzying array of Farmer's Markets, Jane's store was created specifically for her outside the 1920s Spanish-Moorish courthouse in Santa Barbara County on Anapamu Street.

Unfortunately, there is no place like the lush and comfortable-looking business village of Jane Village Bakery. The kit was built inside a Brooklyn picnic home. But hungry visitors will be able to find close faxes at Jeannine or Xanadu (temporarily closed until April 2011 due to a fire) in Montecito or Renault in the city center.


Sideways' wine tasting buddy was a sensation when it was released in 2004. Filmed mainly in the nearby Santa Inez valley, it spawned a whole new appreciation of wines (not Merlot!) From this area, and the cottage industry grew. around people who wanted to repeat the steps of the dubious main characters of the film.

Fans of this film often look for “Card to the Side,” which will take you on a car tour of the highlights of the film. Many destinations even have a Boc logo. If you want to travel by bike, the Sideways bike map helps you find sites.

Different places in Santa Barbara

There are many local places that are found in films that are not even set in the area. This is due to the abundance of wonderful features in the area that mix so easily with other regions.

  • Stearns Wharf is a 19th-century landmark located at the bottom of State Street. It is the oldest active pier on the west coast and the second longest pier on the Pacific coast, which is less than 2,000 feet long. In the 1940s, actor James Cagney and his brothers were co-owners of Stearns Wharf. It appeared on a Date with Judy and My Beloved Martian and a 1966 Batman version. “Some days you just can't get rid of the bomb!”
  • State Street has many familiar attractions. He appeared in the films Cutter’s Way and Steal the Big, Steal the Little, and many others.
  • The Old City clock on State and Haley Streets was featured in the Pelican.
  • The Santa Barbara County Courthouse on Anacapa Street was also in Steel Big, Steel Little.
  • Santa Barbara's mission was on Sunset and Cruel Intent 3.

Various locations in the Greater Santa Barbara area

This region is much more than just beautiful red roofs in the city center. One of the reasons the region is so popular among filmmakers is its almost endless variety.

  • Cold spring arch bridge – steal big, steal little.
  • Kachuma Lake – The Postman Always Calls Twice
  • Gainey Vineyard – Seabiscuit and Of Mice & Men.
  • Downtown Los Olivos – return to Mayberry.
  • Paradise Road – Rise of Starfish and Star Trek.
  • Gaviota Coast – Spartan.
  • Gaviota Trestle – Mice and Men.
  • Gaviota Tunnel – Graduate.
  • Guadalupe Dunes – The Ten Commandments, Hidalgo, G.I. Jane, Pirates of the Caribbean III.
  • Santa Maria Airport – Rocketeer and the best years of our lives.
  • La Purisima Mission – Seabiscuit.
  • Jalama Road – Walk in the clouds.
  • Ranchland Neighborhood – Mice and Men.

Fake Santa Barbara

Sometimes production can be set up in Santa Barbara, but for any reason they cannot shoot there. In this case, they can use several frames for shooting, such as the pier and tower shown in the series Psych.

In the movie "I Love You Man", the wedding episode was supposed to take place at the fictional El Encanto Spa & Resort in Montecito. It was actually filmed in a private residence on the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu. Sorry, the rental concierge will not be able to reserve you at El Encanto, but he will be able to find a good alternative for you!

Sometimes scenes are filmed with certain geographical freedoms. In Graduate, the scene in which Benjamin travels south to Santa Barbara shows that his car is heading north through the Gaviota tunnel in the wrong direction. Even the church he knocked on during the wedding was not nearby. It is actually located in La Verne, east of Los Angeles.

TV loves Santa Barbara

Filmmakers are not the only people involved in this area. His glamor beckons on a small screen. Countless television shows have been held that featured special episodes, or our name is mentioned. In the 80s there was even a night drama called "Santa Barbara."

Most recently, our fair city was featured or mentioned in the episodes Gossip Girl, Surroundings, Victorious, Beverly Hills 90210, The L Word, Observer, Melrose Place, Privileged, LA Law, Zorro and Oceans Away.

A view of Santa Barbara but not quite

Then there are performances that are located in places that sound and suspiciously similar to our beautiful city, but are never explicitly approved as such. The TV show Buffy the Vampire Slayer is a classic example.

Buffy's hometown of Sunnydale is described as a coastal city two hours north of Beverly Hills – a check. Both cities are home to branches of the University of California. The architecture of Sunnydale looks very familiar. Both cities are adjacent to the Pacific Ocean and suffer from devastating earthquakes between the two world wars. Sannidale has also been described as the home of the Chumash tribe, who were indigenous to the Santa Barbara and Ventura counties, and many of the show's solid footage was … you guessed it.

The most convincing of all is the fact that during the seven-year period the heroes several times used the Sunnydale maps, which actually were … Santa Barbara. Now we want to assure anyone who stays in the vacation apartment that there is no such thing as a hellish joke in our utopian city. But you can bring a garlic necklace if you plan to walk a lot after sunset.

Santa Barbara – 100 Years of Movie

2010 marks the 100th anniversary of the lively and thriving cinematic presence in Santa Barbara. Since 1910, the Essanay Film Company has regularly visited Chicago in search of better weather and suitable locations for filming its wildly popular short films of the western genre. In July 1912, they were followed by a permanent western branch of flying studio A, which also sought better weather and relief from the death grip of the Edison Trust in the east. They chose our city because they could find both urban and rural places at hand.

Flight A received great success due to the combined effects of World War I, the pandemic flu and the onset of the Great Depression. But we have already established ourselves as a filming location. In 1923, Cecil B. Demille shot The Ten Commandments on the sandy landscapes of Guadalupe (also used in Pirates of the Caribbean III), again sending us back to the vanguard of the film.

The rest, as they say, is history.

Coming From Santa Barbara

The entertainment industry is alive and well. Last June, the cast and crew of a new film called “Unconditionally” opened a store at the Episcopal Church of All Saints by the sea and at Four Seasons The Biltmore Resort. The film, in which Natalie Portman and Ashton Kutcher participate, is presented as a romantic comedy. The release of the film is scheduled for January 21, 2011.

There are many famous filming locations to visit. If you want to go exploring on your own, SantaBarbara.com offers three different routes that will guide you through the area, choosing locations from your favorite famous films. And when you finish during the day, you will have a vacation rental in Santa Barbara to return home, live a life that movie stars envy.

Everything you ever wanted to know about New York's unmistakable

The New York Comprehensive Auto Insurance Act, which most people call the “No Fault Act,” was passed in 1973 and entered into force the following year. The purpose of the law was to limit the number of claims for compensation for personal injuries in car accidents, as many politicians had this agenda on their platforms.

The Innocence Act was innovative in the sense that it provided for the immediate payment of medical care, lost profits and other reasonable expenses out of one’s own pocket incurred as a result of injuries resulting from a car accident. The law provides that these costs must be paid up to $ 50,000 per person. These payments are called “first-party benefits” or “major economic losses”. The reason this is called “no fault” is because these payments are made regardless of fault. If you lose control of your car and drive into a tree, you will still receive these payments.

If your medical bills, lost earnings and / or pocket expenses are more than $ 50,000, you can still sue the party that caused you injuries for these additional amounts (as well as for pain and suffering). If your injuries are “serious” and caused by the negligence of another, you can still sue. Failure does not cover property damage, so you still need to sue for damage caused to your car, unless you bear a “collision” or “full coverage” for your car.


“Accident-free benefits are provided for economic losses resulting from the use or operation of a motor vehicle (Section 5103 of the Insurance Act). Section 5102 defines a motor vehicle as “all motor vehicles on public roads accept motorcycles.” “Motorcycles were deliberately excluded due to the frequency of accidents, which would make motorcycle insurance too expensive.

You are insured against unforeseen errors and, therefore, what is referred to in the charter as the “insured person” if you are the policyholder, driver or passenger of a vehicle or a pedestrian who has been injured as a result of using the vehicle. If you are not an insurer and car insurance is not valid, you will be insured for benefits without the fault of the "first party" for any auto insurance policy in your family. For example, if your adult child has a car in your home, he will cover you. If there is no “household car”, then there is a state fund called the “Accident Compensation Corporation” (MVAIC), which will provide “no-fault” benefits.

There are some exceptions you should be aware of. First of all, there must be an accident. No guilt benefits are not paid if the injury is caused by a deliberate act. Most insurance policies refuse deliberate action without fault or other types of claims. For example, you do not expect your homeowner insurance to pay for damage caused because you no longer like your carpet, so you pour ink on it. Similarly, if someone intentionally crashes into your car, insurance will not cover losses. Fortunately, such things do not happen very often!

You are also not covered if you are on a “course in your work”. This applies, for example, if you are taking a taxi, you are working as an outpatient or talking on the phone. In most cases, compensation for the employee will bring similar benefits, which will be discussed in another article.

If you are a driver and you are under the influence, no-fault benefits will not be paid for you, but will be paid to passengers or pedestrians that you injured. It is not surprising that if you were injured while committing a crime or trying to avoid the actions of law enforcement agencies, benefits are not paid. Coverage will also not be provided if you drive a vehicle that is known to have been stolen.

So, the advantage of “no fault” is that you automatically have the right to pay medical expenses and much more if you have a car accident, with the exception of the exceptions described above. The disadvantage is that in order to have a “tort” lawsuit about the negligence of the operator that caused your injuries, you must have what the law defines as “serious injury”. I will explain this in more detail later in this article.


Section 5102 of the Insurance Act defines it as $ 50,000 per person for:

All necessary expenses related to medical and related services, treatment, certain non-medical treatment by the generally accepted religious method and other professional medical services, if their occurrence was established within one year after the injury;

The loss of earnings and the reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in obtaining services instead of such persons would be made for income up to $ 2,000 per month for up to three years;

All other reasonable and necessary expenses incurred up to US $ 25 per day for no more than one year after the accident.

The first paragraph describes the types of health care that are covered. Non-medical treatment may include acupuncture and some other holistic treatment methods, but I would not take the risk of insisting on “religious” treatment that has not been widely recognized. Allowable benefits are provided on a “pay schedule," and healthcare providers cannot charge a higher fee, making it difficult to find doctors who are willing to accept payments without fault. Most chiropractors and physiotherapists are happy to accept this, but answers to questions such as orthopedic surgeons, neurologists, and plastic surgeons can be difficult to find.

The second paragraph allows for the payment of provable lost earnings in an accident. If you are self-employed, you can file a tax return to show loss of income. As a rule, you need to provide three years of tax returns – the previous two years indicating what you usually earn, and the year of the incident when you earned less. If you need to hire someone to temporarily replace you, such as a taxi driver, when you have a locket, the amount you pay for a new driver can be refunded. Obviously, if you work “out of the register”, you cannot apply for income loss benefits.

The third paragraph offers a small amount of money, which is usually used to recover the cost of a taxi for treatment and similar expenses. You can also get compensation for housework if you are unable to take care of your children or take care of your home (but only $ 25 a day). There is an opportunity to purchase an extra $ 25,000 after running out of $ 50,000, but very few people choose to buy this extra coverage. In some circumstances, your no-fault insurance benefits will even cover you from accidents in other states.


A plea of ​​no fault must be filed with the insurance company within thirty days after the accident. All claims must be filed within 180 days from the date they are submitted. Most insurance companies will pay benefits on time. Problems may arise with the adequacy of the evidence provided, which may delay payment. Insurance companies sometimes claim that treatment is not necessary for medical reasons and are refused payment, in which case the doctor may decide to refuse or sue the insurance company for paying their bills. It is worth contacting the medical staff who are ready to conduct these arbitral proceedings, instead of ultimately being responsible for the payment, or withholding your case if the insurance company refuses to pay. The insurance company also has the right to be examined by the doctors they hire to determine if you need treatment. In the end, as your injuries improve, the hired physician of the insurance company will “refuse” your medical treatment as necessary, which can also be reviewed or authorized by your doctor.


The threshold for “serious injury” is defined in §5102 (d). Damage from pain and suffering shall be compensated only if the plaintiff is injured as a result of which:

Death; or

Dismemberment; or

fracture; or

Significant disfigurement; or

Fetal loss; or

Permanent loss of use of an organ, member, function, or system of the body; or

Permanent indirect restriction of the use of a function or system of the body; or

Significant restriction of the use of a function or system of the body; or

Medically determined injuries or irregularities that do not allow the victim to carry out almost all the material, actions that are the usual or ordinary actions of such a person for at least 90 days within 180 days immediately following the incident. or injury.

The first two categories above are obvious. Fractures appear on x-rays and will always correspond to the threshold of serious injuries, regardless of how minor they are. A surgical fracture of the left little finger will be enough, even if treatment is not required and there is no disability. Significant deformity is less pronounced. Typically, the problem is cuts and abrasions on the face or other visible parts of the body, which lead to the appearance of “scars” and whether the remaining marks are really ugly. Case law explains that a scar must be so unattractive that a person is the object of "pity and contempt." The mark that should be “indicated” will not correspond to the threshold.

With the loss of the fetus, it is necessary to prove that the miscarriage was really caused by an accident. It would be improbable to say that the miscarriage was caused by a minor effect, especially if the woman did not immediately seek medical help for any injuries and lost the baby after a month.

The “permanent loss” and “significant limitation” sections were intended to cover paralysis or other serious loss in use, but now they include much less serious disorders, such as rupture of ligaments and hernias of the neck and back. There must always be objective evidence, such as an MRI and a doctor’s report confirming these claims, subjective statements about pain are never enough to meet the threshold for serious injuries.

The threshold is reached when the victim loses more than 90 days of work due to injuries. The timeout from work should not be immediate and should not be consistent. For example, a person could remain without work for a month after an accident, try to return to work, exit again, return, undergo surgery, and then recover again. If it is more than 90 days from the first 180 days, it corresponds to the threshold of serious injuries if the doctor certifies that you really could not work. It is not impossible, but it is much more difficult to qualify for this program without a fully paid job, but there are some circumstances in which this may be applicable. For example, a housewife with young children may not be able to provide care and needs to take care of a child for her children, losing 90 out of 180 as a result of her usual activities.

Bandits – Carlo Gambino

He was a quiet man who dressed quietly and, as you know, never lost his temper. But there is no doubt that Carlo Gambino with his huge hawk nose and a mysterious smile was one of the most powerful bosses of all time.

Gambino was born in Palermo, Sicily, on August 24, 1902. In the Palermo region, called Caccamo, where Gambino grew up, there were such intense mafia presence that the police and even the military were afraid to join it. domain This left the mafia with impunity to rule this area, knowing that no matter what they do, this will not be reported to the police, if the police at all take care of what happened there.

Carlo's mother's maiden name was Castelano, and she used her influence on her family, which was a mafia, to introduce Gambino to “Men of Respect” when Gambino was just a teenager. Gambino, who was small in stature and only 5 feet 7 inches, quietly impressed his superiors with his calm, his intelligence and his ability to do what needed to be done, even if it meant killing someone who needed to be killed.

In 1921, before his twentieth birthday, Gambino was awarded for good work, introduced to the mafia, or what was known in Italy as the “Honored Society”. However, due to blood feud by Benito Mussolini against the mafia (Mussolini arrested many mafiosi, including the mafia boss Don Vito Cashio Ferro, who was sentenced to life imprisonment), many mafiosi, including Gambino, decided that Sicily was too dangerous for them to exist the way they are used to. As a result, there was a huge outflow of mafioso to that golden mountain across the Atlantic Ocean, which was called America.

At the end of 1921, Gambino left Sicily on the charterer SS Vincenzo Florio, who was heading to America. Throughout the Gambino trip, there was nothing but wine and anchovies, which, apart from olive oil, were the only nutrients on the ship.

SS Vincenzo Florio moored in Norfolk, Virginia on December 23, 1921, and Gambino landed as an illegal immigrant. Dressed in an elegant three-piece suit and black fedora, Gambino walked down the ramp in search of a car, he was told that when he leaves for Palermo, he will be waiting for him when he marches in America, with flashing lights at the end of the dock. He noticed the car, and when he approached it, Gambino saw Castellano's cousin, sitting behind the wheel. The two men hugged, and after a few seconds they headed to New York.

When Gambino arrived in New York, he was pleased to find that his cousins ​​Castellano had already rented his apartment on Fleet Street in Brooklyn, not far from the waterfront. They also forced Gambino to work for a shipping company owned by his cousins ​​Peter and Paul Castellano. Soon, Gambino moved into an illegal bootlegging business, which is led by his friend from Palermo, Tommy Lucchese. The ban was introduced as a result of the adoption in 1919 of the Volstead Act, which prohibited the production, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages, but not consumption. One thing led to another, and soon Gambino became the main cog in the team of Joe "Boss" Masseria, the most powerful mafia in America.

However, another mafioso escaped the wrath of Mussolini and arrived in America in the mid-1920s. His name was Salvatore Maranzano, the second in the team of Don Vito Cascio Ferro in Sicily. Maranzano believed that Sicilian mafiosi are much superior to those in America, so it is natural that he should become the main boss of the mafia in America. This did not suit Masseria, and the result was the Castellammarese war, which flooded the streets of New York with many corpses from 1929 to 31.

Soon, the Mafia team joined such mafiosi as Lucky Luciano, Frank Costello, Albert Anastasia and Vito Genovese, who were well connected with the Jewish gangsters Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel. However, since Masseria did not like his people to do business with non-Sicilians (Costello, Castilla's real name was from Calabria), Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese waited their time, hoping that both Masseria and Maranzano might knock into each other. turned off so that young people can take control of all their operations.

However, it was Gambino who took the first step in rectifying this situation. Feeling that he was on the losing side of the battle, Gambino secretly approached Maranzano and offered to jump to the side of Maranzano. Maranzano readily agreed, and soon Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese also wanted to join the forces of Maranzano. Maranzano accepted their offer, provided that they would end once and for all with Masseria. This task was completed on April 15, 1931, when Luciano lured Masseria to the Nuova Villa Tammaro restaurant on Coney Island. While Luciano was relaxing in the bathroom, Siegel, Genovese, Anastasia and the Jewish killer Red Levin burst through the front door and filled Leo with Masseria, making him completely dead and ending the Castellammarez war.

Maranzano immediately called for a meeting of all the main mafiosi in the city (reportedly more than 500 people) in a warehouse in the Bronx. At this meeting, Maranzano said: “Whatever happened in the past, it's over. There should no longer be hatred between us. Those who have lost someone in the war must forgive and forget. ”

Then Maranzano formed five families, each of which had a boss and a younger boss. With two upper people, each family would have capithemes or captains who would control the rest of the family: soldiers or soldiers. The five bosses were Joe Bonanno, Joe Profaci, Lucky Luciano, Tommy Luquese and Vincent Mangano. Albert Anastasia became the head of Mangano, and Carlo Gambino became the captain in the Mangano family. Of course, Maranzano made himself the “Boss of All Bosses” (Capo Di Tutti Capi), who didn’t mix very well with the rest of the young mafiosi.

Despite all the pleasant conversations that “there is no more hatred between us,” Maranzano had a secret plan to kill Luciano, Genovese and Costello, people whom Maranzano considered ambitious and a threat to his rule. Maranzano urged the vicious Irish killer Vincent "Crazy Dog" Cole to eliminate his alleged rivalry. Maranzano paid Cole $ 25,000 on the spot, and another $ 25,000 was due when a dirty act was made. To set a trap, Maranzano invited Luciano, Genovese and Costello to his office in downtown Manhattan.

However, Luciano learned about the plot through an informer close to Maranzano, who is believed to be Tommy Lucchese. Instead of appearing in the office of Maranzano, Luciano sent four alleged Jewish killers to an alleged meeting led by Red Levin, one of those who killed Masseria. Four men, posing as detectives, made their way past the bodyguards of Maranzano in an external office. Then they burst into the office of Maranzano, where they were stabbed to death and shot. Leaving the building, the four assassins ran into Crazy Dog Cole. They told him not to worry – Maranzano was dead, and the police were on their way. Cole turned his face, whistling a happy tune, earning $ 25,000 without firing a shot.

Soon Luciano called bosses from four other mafia families and told them that the title “Boss of All Bosses” had been removed along with Maranzano. Luciano then formed the National Crime Commission, which included the Jewish bandits Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel, and the Dutchman Schulz.

Gambino, now firmly entrenched as captain in the Mangano family, has become the largest source of money in the entire New York Mafia. And in the mafia, money brings prestige.

In 1932, Gambino married his cousin, Catherine Castelano Carlo, and eventually Catherine Gambino raised three sons and a daughter. (Marriage to the first cousin was common in Italy, and it was not objected to in the United States as it is today. In fact, marrying a cousin is currently illegal in most, but not all states. Editor’s Note : my paternal grandparents and On the side were cousins ​​who married Sicily in the early 1900s.)

When the ban was lifted in 1933, Gambino was about to make money on the legal business, but he did it illegally. While Ban was thriving in the Mafia's illegal sales, Gambino planned days when he knew the Ban would end. To achieve his goals, Gambino gathered as many illegal personnel as possible; in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and even Maryland. When the ban ended and alcohol prices skyrocketed, Gambino had the largest system of illegal distribution of alcohol on the east coast of America. And since he himself made a drink and did not pay any state taxes, Gambino could undermine the legitimate distributors, thereby earning himself and the Mangano family a small fortune in the mid-late 1930s.

The outbreak of World War II gave Gambino another opportunity to earn even more illegal money thanks to the wartime stamp racket. Since war is inevitable against both Germany and Japan, on August 28, 1941, the United States Government created the Price Management Authority (OPA), which was tasked with printing and distributing food stamps to the American public. Without these brands, people could not buy gasoline, tires, shoes, nylon, sugar, fuel oil, coffee, meat and food. Gambino believed that the only way he could acquire food brands for sale on the black market was to simply steal them.

Gambino sent his best trusted crackers and second-rate people to the vaults at the Price Management Office, and they came out with food stamps worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. When some low-level OPA employees realized that the mafiosi had stolen the rations, they decided to make a deal themselves by stealing the rations themselves and selling them to Gambino and his guys, of course, at a bargain price. basement prices. Gambino wondered why risking the marks of the diet with the possibility of being caught. Thus, he accepted the perverse offer of OPA employees and began to buy rations from them.

The beauty of this scheme was that Gambino already had a ready-made distribution network: its network of illegal distributors of booze. In October 1963, Mafia informer Joe Valachi testified before Senator Arkansas John L. McClellan, Investigative Subcommittee on Public Transactions, that Gambino made a profit of more than $ 1 million in just one deal with rations.

As the experienced businessman he was, Gambino knew that he would not be able to live a secular life without reporting substantial revenues to the government. Thus, Gambino invested the money he earned from his illegal operations, valued at several million dollars, in legal enterprises such as meat markets, pizzerias, importers of olives and cheeses, cartographic companies, clothing factories, bakeries and restaurants.

By 1951, the Mangano family, thanks to Gambino's incredible ability to generate income, was one of the most prosperous in the mafia. The problem was that Mangano did not get along with his boss Anastasia. Mangano envied Anastasia’s proximity with other bosses such as Frank Costello and Lucky Luciano, who was in exile in Italy; the pardon clause he received from the United States government after serving 9 years in prison on trumped-up charges of prostitution. Several times Mangano physically attacked Anastasia, a stupid move, as the younger and strongest Anastasia easily defeated her boss in a fist fight.

With numerous rumors that Mangano was preparing to kill Anastasia, Anastasia decided to deliver the first blow with the blessing of crime boss Frank Costello. On April 19, 1951, the body of Phil Mangano, the brother of Vincent Mangano, was found in swamps near Sheephead Bay. He received five headshots. When the police investigating the killing tried to contact Vincent Mangano about the death of his brother, they could not find his tracks. Vincent Mangano's body was never found.

A few days later, Anastasia sat down with the other bosses and explained that he had killed Mangano before Mangano could kill him. With the support of Costello, Anastasia was appointed head of the Mangano family, and the name was changed to the Anastasia family. Anastasia made Frank Skalis and Joe Adonis their boss, and he gave his capo Carlo Gambino more people and more power in the organization.

However, the reign of Anastasia lasted less than seven years. Anastasia constantly banged the head of the evil crime boss Vito Genovese, who was going to capture all the rackets in New York, even if it meant killing the other bosses one by one. Anastasia received a terrible blow when his younger boss Joe Adonis was deported back to Italy as an unwanted foreigner. Anastasia knew that his days were numbered when, in early 1956, Frank Costello was shot in the head with a Genoese henchman Vincent "Chin" Gigante. Costello survived the shooting, and in the trial of the Giant, Costello, faithful to the Mafia code of Omerta, refused to call Giant his striker.

However, this significantly reduced Costello's power in the mafia, and at the insistence of Genovese, Costello was expelled from among the bosses in the mafia commission. This left Anastasia without a close ally and put Anastasia in a vulnerable position. Soon after, Anastasia, the other junior boss Frank Skalis, was shot dead while shopping for fruits and vegetables on Arthur Avenue in the Bronx.

The last shoe fell when Anastasia was shot dead on October 25, 1957, while sitting in a barber chair at the Park Sheridan Hotel in downtown Manhattan. Now that Anastasia is dead, Genovese called to sit down with the other bosses and suggested that Carlo Gambino, whom he had plotted to kill Anastasia, take control of Anastasia's family. The commission agreed and they renamed the family in Gambino.

The greedy Genovese called for meeting with all the criminal authorities, bosses, captains and respected mafia men in America, which was supposed to take place in the sleepy city of Apalachin, New York, at the home of Joseph Barbara, capo to the Buffalo crime family, crime boss Stefano Magaddino. There were several items on the Genovese agenda, but the main one was that Genovese would declare himself “Capo di Tutti Capi”, or “Boss of All Bosses,” a name that was vacant after Salvatore's death. Maranzano

On November 17, 1957, dozens of bandits reached the house of Barbara. The group included crime bosses John Sculish from Cleveland, Sam Giancan from Chicago, Frank DeSimone from California, Santo Trafiante from Florida, Gerardo Catena and Frank Majuri from New Jersey, as well as Carlo Gambino, Joe Profaci, Tommy Luchese and Vito Genovese. from New York.

However, before the festivities began, State Sergeant Edgar Roswell stormed the house along with a dozen state soldiers. Roswell later said he became suspicious when he saw Joseph Barbara Jr. reserve a hotel for about a dozen people. Roswell said that he then drove past the residence of Barbara and saw dozens of parked luxury cars parked on and next to Barbara's estate. Roswell said he called for heavy support, and when his soldiers arrived, they made their move.

Later, there were rumors that Meyer Lansky himself, who did not particularly like Vito Genovese, warned the state about the upcoming mafia convention.

Be that as it may, when the soldiers stormed the house, the mafiosi, like in a Chinese fire training, scattered in all directions. Men in expensive suits jumped through open windows, and if they could not get to their cars, they drove him on foot through the woods, ruining their patent leather shoes. Sam Giancana safely escaped through the forest, as did Bonanno, boss Carmine Galente. But both men were in a mess; their costumes are destroyed by thorny bushes. Some cars left the hotel before the checkpoint was set up, but most did not. When the dust cleared, 58 members of the Mafia were detained and ordered to empty their pockets. For 58 people, $ 300,000 in cash was found, making the state police even more suspicious of the meeting.

What was remarkable in the meeting was people who decided not to attend. Apart from Lansky, Frank Costello, Carlo Marcello from New Orleans, and Lansky's friend Joseph "Doc" Streicher were absent.

Of the 58 detainees, 27 were accused of obstructing the administration of justice, 20 of which were convicted of refusing to answer questions about the purpose of the meeting. One of the convicts was Gambino's cousin Paul Castellano, who as a result spent a year in prison.

Прерванная встреча, больше всего на свете, привела к падению Вито Дженовезе. Мало того, что он не получил высокое звание «Босс всех боссов», он стал изгоем в мафии; высмеивают за глупость и жадность за то, что в одно и то же время зовут так много важных людей в одно и то же место для своих собственных целей.

На следующий день после рейда газеты всей страны опубликовали на первой полосе истории об этом инциденте. Мужчины мафии больше не могли утверждать, что мафия не существует. Полиция и директор ФБР Дж. Эдгар Гувер, который годами отрицал существование мафии, неистовствовали, оказывая сильное давление на операции мафии.

Хотя сначала Карло Гамбино казался жертвой обстоятельств, коварный ветеран толпы замышлял, чтобы превратить инцидент в свою пользу. На самом деле, было предположение, что Гамбино знал о набеге заранее и пошел туда нарочно, чтобы никто не заподозрил его в предательстве; что имело бы смысл в свете дальнейшего развития событий.

Поскольку Дженовезе все еще не оправился от потери лица, Гамбино вступил в сговор с Фрэнком Костелло, Мейером Лански и Лаки Лучано (все еще в изгнании в Италии, но может свободно перемещаться на Кубу, чтобы встретиться со своими приятелями), чтобы Дженовезе по шею многомиллионная международная сделка с наркотиками. Даже мысль, что торговля наркотиками была запрещена мафией, жадный Дженовезе не мог устоять перед желанием сделать тонну теста.

Когда пришло время, Гамбино сообщил в Бюро по борьбе с наркотиками о сделке с наркотиками, что привело к аресту Дженовезе. На суде Дженовезе Гамбино заплатил лжесвидетелю по имени Нельсон Кантеллопс, который настаивал на том, что Дженовезе был не только вовлечен в эту конкретную сделку с наркотиками, но на самом деле участвовал в десятках сделок с наркотиками на протяжении многих лет. , В результате Дженовезе был приговорен к 15 годам тюрьмы. Дженовезе отсидел чуть более десяти лет, прежде чем он умер в тюрьме 14 февраля 1969 года.

После смерти Анастасии, Дженовезе в тюрьме, Лучано в изгнании, Фрэнка Костелло в основном из мафиозной петли, Джо Профачи становится старше и слабее, а Джо Бонанно имеет относительно небольшую преступную семью, Карло Гамбино, несомненно, стал самым влиятельным боссом мафии в Америке. Его команда, состоящая из более чем 500 человек, выходивших на улицы, включала его младшего босса Джо Биондо, его консилиера Джозефа Риккобоно и капоса Арманд "Томми" Рава, Аниелло "Мистер Нил" Деллакроче, Пол Кастеллано, Кармин "Доктор" Ломбардоцци, Джозеф " Джо Пайни "Армоне и Кармин" "Колеса Вагона" Фатико.

Гамбино расширил свои предприятия по всей территории Соединенных Штатов. Помимо Нью-Йорка, Гамбино держал свои пальцы в банке в Чикаго, Лос-Анджелесе, Майами, Бостоне, Сан-Франциско и Лас-Вегасе. Гамбино также управлял могущественным Международным союзом грузчиков, который контролировал все доки в Нью-Йорке, главном порту для импорта в Америку.

После того, как Джо Валачи стал первым известным информатором мафии, Гамбино усилил правило, запрещающее продажу наркотиков в его команде. Рациональным для Гамбино было то, что наказание за продажу наркотиков было настолько суровым, что мужчины могли бы стать крысами при аресте, а не сидеть в тюрьме, как это делали «настоящие мужчины» мафии в прошлом. Семейная политика Гамбино гласила: «Сделай и умри», и он соблюдал это правило без исключений.

Катаясь на вершине кучи мафии, Карло Гамбино стал популярной фигурой на улицах Маленькой Италии в Нью-Йорке. В то время как другие боссы забаррикадировались в своих особняках с вооруженным телохранителем, охранной сигнализацией и электрифицированными заборами, Гамбино безнаказанно гулял по улицам, останавливаясь, чтобы поговорить со старыми друзьями, а также покупать овощи и фрукты у уличных торговцев. Гамбино отправился в Феррару на Гранд-стрит, между Малберри и Моттом, за выпечкой. Затем он прогуливался по кварталу, чтобы купить итальянское мясо, сыры и итальянские деликатесы в Алеве, на углу Малберри и Гранд.

Начиная с марта 1970 года у Гамбино начались проблемы с законом. Пока он прогуливался по Бруклинской улице, Гамбино был окружен полицией Нью-Йорка и сотрудниками ФБР. Они арестовали Гамбино и обвинили его в разработке схемы кражи 30 миллионов долларов наличными у бронетранспортной компании, расположенной в Бронксе. В конечном итоге Гамбино было предъявлено обвинение, но дело было прекращено из-за отсутствия доказательств.

Это заставило федералов попробовать другую тактику, чтобы убрать Гамбино с улиц. В 1966 году правительство издало приказ о депортации в Гамбино, но по какой-то причине этот приказ так и не был выполнен. В начале 1971 года, после того, как жена Гамбино Кэтрин умерла от рака, федералы действительно попытались выполнить этот приказ, но, услышав о его неминуемой опасности, коварный Гамбино симулировал серьезный сердечный приступ. Федералы были возмущены уловкой Гамбино, поэтому они попросили Службу общественного здравоохранения США дать Гамбино полную медицинскую помощь. Федералы были в ужасе, когда выяснилось, что у Гамбино действительно было тяжелое заболевание сердца. Это было подтверждено в 1972 году, когда Гамбино был срочно доставлен из своего дома в 2230 Ocean Parkway в Бруклине в больницу Колумба на Манхэттене с обширным сердечным приступом. Почему больница в Бруклине не подходит для Гамбино, так и не было раскрыто.

Выздоравливая дома, Гамбино нарушил один из принятых им законов – «Наркотики и смерть». Исполняющий обязанности генуэзского босса Томас «Томми Райан» Эболи обратился к Гамбино с предложением «не пропустить», чтобы заключить многомиллионную сделку с Луисом Цивилло, которая, по мнению федералов, является крупнейшим торговцем наркотиками в Америке. Проблема заключалась в том, что у Эболи, бывшего менеджера по боксу и печально известного игрока, не было 4 миллионов долларов, необходимых для продолжения операции. Гамбино получил от Эболи 4 миллиона долларов, но потерял все, когда федералы арестовали Цивилло и конфисковали наркотики и деньги. Когда Гамбино обратился к Эболи с просьбой пропустить 4 миллиона долларов, Эболи вывернул карманы наизнанку, показывая, что у него нет денег.

Это не очень понравилось Гамбино. В результате, примерно в 1 час ночи, 16 июля 1972 года, Эболи был застрелен пять раз, когда он выходил из квартиры своей подруги в Краун-Хайтс, Бруклин. Эболи скончался на месте, и Гамбино имел достаточно влияния в мафиозной комиссии, чтобы приказать, чтобы его близкий друг, генуэзский капитан Фрэнк «Фунци» Тьери, стал новым боссом семьи Дженовезе. И так было сделано.

У Гамбино была еще одна неудача, когда в начале 1973 года его 29-летний племянник Эммануэль "Мэнни" Гамбино был похищен с целью получения выкупа. Эта же банда ранее похитила капитана криминальной семьи Гамбино Фрэнка "Фрэнки Воп" Манзо за 100 000 долларов. После того, как эта сумма была заплачена за безопасное возвращение Мэнзо, банда стала более амбициозной с похищением Мэнни Гамбино – на этот раз прося $ 200 000. Гамбино пытался торговаться, предлагая им всего 50 000 долларов. Вскоре после этого тело Мэнни Гамбино было найдено в сидячем положении на свалке в Нью-Джерси, рядом со складом боеприпасов военно-морских сил Эрла. 1 июня 1973 года вырожденный игрок Роберт Сентер признал себя виновным в непредумышленном убийстве и был приговорен к пятнадцати годам тюремного заключения. Очевидно, Сентер упал в долг перед Гамбино, и было легче убить Гамбино, чем погасить долг.

После того, как смерть его племянника усугубила агонию смерти его жены, Гамбино стал отшельником в своем доме на Оушен-Паркуэй. Он окружил себя членами семьи, прежде всего его двоюродным братом Полом Кастельяно. К 1975 году стало ясно, что состояние сердца Гамбино не позволит ему жить намного дольше. Поэтому он начал планировать преемственность в качестве главы преступной семьи Гамбино. Желая сохранить власть в крови своей семьи, Гамбино помазал своего двоюродного брата Пола Кастельяно, чтобы сменить его.

Это не очень понравилось остальным Гамбино, которые ожидали, что давний мафиози Аниелло Деллакроче станет естественным преемником Гамбино. Чтобы успокоить Деллакроче, Гамбино передал ему все манхэттенские ракетки, контролируемые семьей Гамбино. И это действительно был большой подарок.

15 октября 1976 года Карло Гамбино сделал последний вздох, когда его сердце, наконец, сдалось. Похороны Гамбино были одними из самых тщательно продуманных за всю историю Бруклина. Более 100 автомобилей приняли участие в похоронной процессии, которая завершилась на кладбище Святого Иоанна в Квинсе, Нью-Йорк; на том же кладбище был похоронен его давний друг Чарльз «Счастливчик» Лучано.

В фильме 1985 года «Честь Приззи», снятом Джоном Хастоном и Джеком Николсоном в главной роли, актер Уильям Хикки сыграл Дона Коррадо Прицци, персонажа по мотивам Дона Карло Гамбино.

New York Senior Travel Tips

With its many historical sights, buildings, museums and vibrant culture, New York attracts millions of tourists from all over the world. However, not necessarily young people and families can enjoy their vacation in a thriving city. It has many options to make the tour enjoyable as well as affordable for older visitors. Senior citizens visiting the city, alone or with family members, can enjoy the tour if they plan carefully. A pleasant public transport system and affordable housing will be a pleasant surprise for them.

New York City Transportation for Seniors
Fortunately, older people visiting various parts of New York City do not face serious transportation problems. If you are over 65, you can take advantage of reduced fare on the bus and metro in the city. Most city buses have wheelchair lifts with the ability to lower the front entrance for easier access. Elderly people can also sit behind the driver.

Planning New York Attractions Important for Senior Visitors
There are many tourist attractions in and around New York, but senior visitors should plan carefully. Sights that need to walk a lot or climb stairs can make them feel tired soon. Keep in mind that places like Central Park and Times Square are best explored when walking.

Senior visitors who do not like to walk, but want to highlight the most iconic sights and places in the city, have two options. A bus ride will cover many places, or a boat tour of the Manhattan region should be sufficient for them. A Manhattan Island cruise takes more than 2 hours and spans the Statue of Liberty, Roosevelt Island and Ellis Island. Using the bus network is very beneficial. It is better to check online bus routes in advance. Gray Line bus tours are quite popular, and routes cover the Statue of Liberty and other major city attractions.

Affordable Senior Travel Attractions in New York
A number of New York tourist attractions are available for older visitors. It would be nice to visit museums in the daytime, as older people get free admission. Some attractions have special watches, such as the Museum of Modern Art and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. The Bronx Zoo has the opportunity to pay for what you can afford.

Seniors planning to explore the city for a week should choose a pass to New York. This helps save money and time. It includes great discounts on attractions such as the Empire State Building, the American Museum of Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The pass also entitles customers to choose Hayden Planetarium shows and a circular cruise in a circular line. Senior visitors with grandchildren can get the best discounts for a companion.

Get close to nature
For some older visitors, grandiose buildings and New York buildings may seem less attractive than natural attractions such as parks and a zoo. They must head to various parks in the city. The historic city of Richmond, the Central Park Zoo and the Queens Country Farm Museum are ideal for such visitors.

What is the difference between a theme park and an amusement park?

Disney World – theme park or amusement park? How about Cedar Point? Is there a difference, or do the two terms mean the same thing? Does it matter? Well, this may not be as important as some things, but park and amusement park lovers will find it interesting, if not important. There is a lot of confusion and incorrect information. Therefore, I thought that I would use this article to clarify some problems.

Amusement park

Let's start by defining the term “Amusement Park,” because amusement parks came first. By most definitions, an amusement park has been around for hundreds of years, from around the 16th century. It can be defined simply as a fixed place where several rides and attractions are going to amuse people simply enough.

However, over the years, the definition of an amusement park has been overshadowed by changes in the design of skating, the invention of cars and the media, and the need for entertainment that meets or exceeds the expectations of the audience. These changes caused the modernization and innovation of some parks, as well as the bankruptcy and closure of many others. But one thing remained unchanged, the parks themselves were always just collections of attractions, regardless of how this collection looked. Great examples of this include Coney Island in Brooklyn or Riverview Park in Chicago … none of which exist today by the way.

Amusement parks

While & # 39; s debatable when the “theme park” was introduced, most experts believe that Walt Disney was his inventor. Disney, however, was heavily influenced by Nott Berry Farm and European amusement parks. So you can claim that Nott's Berry Farm was the first theme park, but Walt Disney certainly took the theme park to a whole new level. So what makes a theme park different from an amusement park?

This theme park consists of different theme lands or regions. Great efforts are being made to create the illusion of another world or culture, using landscape, architecture, music, food, staff and attractions. At a theme park, rides often take second place compared to the environment in which they are located. The more the park is able to bring its guests from the “real world” to the fantasy world, the more plausible the label “theme” becomes. Since Walt Disney used filmmakers instead of architects to design his park, he was able to create a real escape from reality, as if the theme park was a movie on screen.

Themed resorts take theme parks to a whole new level

With the opening of Walt Disney World in Florida in 1971, the next step in the development of the theme park took place. Going beyond Walt Disney World rides and attractions, Disney has combined a theme park with hotels, golf courses, water activities and (ultimately) other theme parks. We like to call it Theme Resort.

The idea of ​​a theme resort is to attract guests and then leave them in your ownership for everything they could ever want or imagine. It is possible that with the advent of Disney & # 39; s Wide World of Sports – sport fishing, water and field sports and tournament opportunities – almost everything that can be done on vacation can now be found in one place. The theme resort has become a one-of-a-kind, one-stop shop for dream vacations, and numbers confirm that Disney's idea is right thinking. Disney is not alone in this market. Universal Studios in Orlando consists of two separate theme parks, hotels and restaurants to create the Universal Orlando Resort. In the 80s, Disney learned that maintaining loved ones is the key to profit, and this is certainly confirmed.

Last thoughts

It is easy to get frustrated by comparisons that are usually made between amusement parks and theme parks, even if these comparisons should by definition not be made. When someone says, “I think Cedar Point is a much better amusement park than Disney World,” they are in some ways right because Walt Disney World is not an amusement park and will never pretend to be a roller coaster enthusiast. 39 Heaven. At the same time, however, they are also mistaken because they compare apples to oranges. To make things even more confusing, Cedar Point will sometimes call itself a theme park simply because they mark up different areas of the park. Sorry, Cedar Point. Theme is more than just shortcuts.

So, the next time someone says they like Dollywood or Six Flags much more than Disney World, don't argue. They can also say that they like sushi more than a bicycle.

The Art of Neon Lights – Luminous Marketing Concept

In the early 1920s, a new and exciting advertising phenomenon appeared that took traditional marketing methods to a new level. In 1923, Georges Claude and his French company Claude Neon introduced neon gas signs to the United States. It was in the same year that the first neon sign was installed in the city of Los Angeles, California. Earl S. Anthony, a Packard car dealer, brought two Packard badges from Paris for his representation, for which he paid $ 24,000. Of course, it was an incredible amount of money to pay for this time for two signs, but the concept was new and unique, although the popularity of neon signs has not yet become widespread. Today, this vintage Packard sign is privately owned in Cottage Grove, Oregon, but can be seen from the sidewalk.

Glassware is impregnated with various gases (for example, neon, helium, xenon, argon and krypton), creating a variety of colors. When you look at the dazzling show of neon lights that shine brightly on Broadway in New York and on the Strip or Fremont Street in Las Vegas, Nevada, they are as spectacular as the fireworks on New Year's Eve or Fourth of July. Traveling around the country and around the world, you will find many businesses that still demonstrate the incredible skill of neon lights.

Neon lights on the theater tents, signs for motels, hotels, restaurants, casinos and other businesses added this “wow factor” to attract potential customers and curious spectators. These lights outside the business were an exciting hook to lure you into figuring out what was going on inside this establishment. Neon lights were a fairly innovative advertising marketing tool.

From advertising to art, the popularity of collectibles is turning into the popularity of neon lights, neon watches, neon brand names and new products, business signs, bar signs, beer signs and light boxes. If you are a neon light lover who wants to learn more about the education, history, and safety of neon collectibles, here are a few resources:

1. MONA (Museum of Neon Art) introduces the public to the history, culture and technical aspects of electrical and kinetic environments. MONA conducts neon art classes and is dedicated to the training, demonstration and conservation of electrical and kinetic media art.

2. The Las Vegas Neon Museum collects, preserves, studies and exhibits neon signs to enrich and educate its global audience.

3. Roadside Peek posts on its website information on education and observations of neon lights. They also include other roadside icons and treasures from the past found throughout the country.

For educational institutions related to continuing education on neon signs, here is a list of some schools provided by Neon University:

1. British School of Neon (England)

2. Daco Neon School (Papillon, Nebraska)

3. Neon Ed Waldrum School (Irving, Texas)

4. Hollywood School of Neon (Hollywood, Florida)

5. National Neon Institute (Benicia, California)

6. Neon Trade School (Las Vegas, Nevada)

7. Savage Neon (Baltimore, Maryland)

8. Urban Glass (Brooklyn, New York)

9. North Texas Neon School (Fort Worth, Texas)

10. Northwest Indiana Neon School (Hammond, Indiana)

11. Northwest College of Technology (Detroit Lakes, Minnesota)

The art, science and theater of neon signs can inspire you to collect or revive this retro advertising image for your business.

Killing harry

He was an insider for the mafia who, according to his former friend Louis “Lepke the Buhalter,” knew too much to live in. As a result, Harry “Big Green” Greenberg was the victim of a mafia strike in sunny California.

Harry Greenberg, also known as Harry Shakter and Harry Schober, grew up on the Lower East Side of Manhattan with Lepke and longtime partner Lepke Jacob "Gurra" Shapiro, who were lovingly called the "Gorillas", and then, as they became more prosperous, – "Gemini from the golden dust." Greenberg was closely associated with the two killers and was their partner in various areas of clothing and fraud. Obviously, several murders were committed, and although there is no evidence that Greenberg participated in these killings, he knew exactly about the killings and why they were committed. Maybe Greenberg even knew who committed the killings. This knowledge was not a very good thing in the evil world of Louis "Modeling" Buchalter.

Greenberg talked with Lepke and Shapiro, and he even spent most of his summer with them at the Loch Sheldrake Country Club, in Catskills in upstate New York, owned by a legitimate businessman named Sam Tannenbaum. Sam Tannenbaum had a teenage son named Ellie, who worked at the hotel, either waiting for tables, or setting up sun loungers by the lake. Sam hoped Ellie would be his heir at the hotel when Sam decided to resign, but Ellie was destined for bigger and better things.

Or so Ally thought.

At the end of the summer of 1931, Tannenbaum was walking along Broadway in Manhattan when he came across Greenberg.

Greenberg asked Tannenbaum: “Do you want a job?”

“I could use one if it pays,” Tannenbaum said.

Greenberg smiled. “This is for sculpting. You know what kind of work it will be. ”

Greenberg unwittingly just helped hire one of his killers.

Over time, Tannenbaum climbed the stairs to Murder Incorporated Lepke, which was a branch of the mafia whose sole purpose was to kill anyone who was the main mafia boss in New York and then the boss around the world. America said you need to be killed.

The situation with Lepke went south when in 1936 special prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, who had already sentenced Laki Luciano, a partner of Lepke in the National Crime Syndicate, to prison in a 30-year-old. right on the Modeling. Dewey followed the Lepke & # 39; s garment center and Shakown Lepke & # 39; s "Bakers Union" rackets. However, these frauds were small potatoes compared to what Dewey really meant for Lepke. Convicted drug dealers always spent considerable time in prison, so Dewey convinced the Federal Drug Enforcement Bureau to institute proceedings against Lepke during a massive drug smuggling operation. Assuming that he was faced with a big bang in the clap, Lepke continued to run. Lepke was hidden in several shelters in Brooklyn by his co-leader Murder Incorporated Albert Anastasia, while Lepke's rackets were served by other Syndicate leaders.

While Lepke was hiding, he began to think about who knows enough about his rackets to put Lepke in prison for a very long time, if not directly on an electric chair. Lepke told all his killers and everyone who was in the know either “Get out of town or die.” Lepke thought that if any of his people were arrested, they could squeal at him to decide for themselves a better deal. It turned out that Lepke was right when he was worried about this, and therefore in the spring of 1939 Lepke sent the word "Big Green" to Greenberg to remove him from the city.

Greenberg took Lepke’s “advice” to heart and sent him to Montreal, Canada. While in Montreal, Greenberg thought: “Hey, I'm here, nowhere in Canada, and I can’t even earn a decent penny. These guys are better off taking good care of me. ”

As a result, “Big Green” Greenberg did something very stupid. He sent a letter to Mendy Weiss, who was second at Molding at Murder Inc., and said: “I hope you guys are not forgetting about me. You better not do that. ” He then asked Weiss to provide $ 5,000 to help him deal with cold weather in Canada.

Greenberg was waiting for an answer, or money, or both. When he received none, he thought again. “Hey, maybe sending this letter was not such a good idea.”

By this time, Weiss, after a conversation with Lepke, had already ordered Tannenbaum to go to Canada and delete Big Zelenka from the list of “people to worry about”. But when Tannenbaum arrived in Montreal, Big Green was already running a chicken coop and was officially a “hamster” not only by law, but also with guys whom he considered his best friends.

Greenberg decided he would bring the matter to Detroit, where the Purple Gang, another subsidiary of the National Crime Syndicate, might be good enough to bet him a few dollars and maybe even give Greenberg a safe place to hide. The Purple Gang, run by Sammy Cohen, nicknamed Sammy Purple, was very sweet with Greenberg; too sweet, Greenberg thought. While he was waiting for the money to stake, Big Green thought again, and it occurred to him that the Purple Gang was stopping him so that the New York killers could come there to do a lot of work for Big Green.

They must have checked the New York office, Greenberg thought. "The guys from New York must have told them," Keep him in tow until we find a couple of guys there. "

Greenberg was right. Tannenbaum and two other gunsels were heading to Detroit at the same time that Greenberg decided to follow the advice of Horace Greeley and "Go west, young man."

Greenberg went as far west as possible without swimming, and stayed in Hollywood, California, in the new hometown of Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, the main boss at Murder Incorporated and one of the few killers who thoroughly enjoyed doing their job.

Siegel was sent to California in 1937 by the National Crime Syndicate to take control of all illegal activities in a state that the East Coast mob considered virgin territory. After organizing the gambling interests of the syndicate, Siegel decided that you can earn a lot of money by combining Hollywood extras.

You can have the biggest movie stars, the best scripts, as well as the best producers and directors, but without additional features, most films will never be made. Thus, Siegel combined the extras and received from each of them neat amounts for the privilege of appearing, at least for a few seconds, in a Hollywood production. Siegel even became a movie himself.

However, this was a change in the block of wood compared to what Siegel actually meant.

Tall and handsome Hollywood, Siegel penetrated the upper reaches of the Hollywood elite. He dated two starlets at a time, and even had a hot and heavy affair with an Italian countess. The best actors and actresses of the time were Siegel's best friends, but they quickly learned to be friends with a man known as Bugsy (no one ever called him “Bugsy” on his face), and it was an easy way to express a dent in your bank account.

Using the same technique he learned from Lepke in the unions, Siegel approached the biggest stars with his fluid movement. He will admire the female stars, and then scare them with his reputation and a few harsh words. But with male stars, Siegel got right to the point

With a notebook and pen in Siegel’s hands, the conversation could sound something like this: “Hey, look, buddy, I am putting you up for $ 10,000 for additional services.”

"What is this deal?" the actor will protest "What should I do with extras?"

Siegel then shook his head, like a father disgusted by an ignorant child. “I do not think you understand. Take, for example, your new photo. Everything is ready to go. But what happens if the extras go on strike? because they are all allies

Without blinking an eye, all of Siegel’s Hollywood stars came up without exception, paid and paid well. In 1940, when the Fed received a warrant for Siegel’s Holmby Hill mansion, they found in the safe on the top floor a detailed account of the “loans” Siegel received for all of Hollywood’s main names. In just one year, Bugsy Siegel shocked actors and actresses for 400 thousand dollars. And no one even complained about the police. These frightened Hollywood suckers even chatted with Siegel when he put his hands in their pockets.

So when the news came that Greenberg was in Hollywood, on the east side, Siegel was given a contract. Now, as a rule, a person as tall as Siegel simply gave orders and possibly helped with planning. But Siegel, contrary to Lepke’s advice, insisted on dealing with the very killing of Greenberg.

Bugsy just really liked killing.

“We all begged Bugsy to stay out of the gunfire,” Doc Streicher, a friend of Lepke, said a few years later. “By this time he was too big a man to be personally involved. But Bugsy did not listen. He said that Greenberg is a threat to all of us, and if the cops grab him, he can tell the whole story of our equipment back. ” until the 1920s. "

At Newark's airport, shortly before he boarded a flight to Hollywood, Tannenbaum received a small bag with a doctor from the New Jersey mafia boss himself: Abner “Longy” Zwilman. Inside this bag were several “clean” pistols that were to be used in Greenberg’s Hollywood hood.

Meanwhile, Siegel was putting together his "hit team", which included Whitey Krakow, a Siegel relative from New York, and Frankie Carbo, a bandit from the Lower East Side and an employee at Murder Inc. He had already been arrested 17 times and charged with five murders, but none of the charges led to Carbo spending some considerable time in prison. Carbo was also an active fighter promoter and manager, and many of his top-notch fighters were suspected of not doing their best when their boss and his buddies made a big bet on another person.

Now the question arose of obtaining asylum of the car.

Sholom Bernstein, an independent cameraman from New York, just happened to be vacationing in Hollywood when he decided to visit his old friend Benny Siegel. Soon, Bernstein would be sorry that he had ever made this visit.

Even before secular conversations began, Siegel immediately understood.

“Clip car,” Siegel barked at Bernstein. “Leave it in the parking lot down the street.”

Bernstein, a veteran of such things, looked puzzled. Usually, when he cut a car, he hid it in a private garage, where the police could not see him.

"Parking?" Bernstein said.

“That's right,” Siegel snapped. "Just do as I say?"

So, Bernstein cut the car and parked it in the open parking lot, as Siegel requested. Almost immediately, the owner of the stolen car filed a police report. Since they were looking for a stolen car, the police discovered the car in the open air and returned it to its rightful owner.

Despite this misfortune, Siegel ordered Bernstein to cut another car. Bernstein said he would, and he even told Siegel how he usually acted. “Then you get license plates from another car, which, in your opinion, the owner only uses from time to time, like a Sunday driver,” said Bernstein. “By the time the guy finds out, you have done your job, and the police are looking for him – why his plates on a wrecked car.” Then you … "

Siegel cut short Bernstein in the middle of the sentence.

The veins swelled around his neck, Siegel said: “Who the hell are you coming and telling me how to do the work? Everything is going my way here. And don’t forget about it. ”

Despite the fact that Bernstein was on vacation in Hollywood, the mafia rules were the same when the mafia boss orders you to do something, you do it, or you're dead. But Bernstein believed that when he returned to New York and asked for work, the mafia bosses, because Bernstein was a capable freelancer, allowed him to deal with things in his own way. Now, as Siegel dictated the terms, Bernstein felt that he was not obliged to continue work. Thus, Bernstein jumped into his car and headed back to New York, which caused Siegel's displeasure and made him find someone else who would steal a car for the Greenberg caper. Smoking, Siegel now wanted Bernstein's death.

But more on that later.

By this time, monitoring the residence of Greenberg in 1804 on N. Vista De Mar Street showed that Greenberg was just a hermit. He never left home, with the exception of his overnight 15-minute trips to get a newspaper in nearby Bel Air. Greenberg told his wife that his little night tour “didn’t let him blow himself up.”

On the night of November 22, 1939, on the eve of Thanksgiving, the militants blew him a goldstein.

Immediately after dark, Tannenbaum took the stolen car from the parking lot. He then drove Siegel and Carbo to Siegel’s house to pick up Siegel’s Cadillac, which was to be used as an emergency vehicle in case the police or a curious passerby decided to pursue them after the deal was done. Then two cars with Carbo in Siegel's car drove up to a place located in several houses from Greenberg's residence. They watched as Greenberg left his house a few hours later, carefully looked in both directions (passing two parked cars down the block), got into his car and rushed off. Then Carbo got out of Siegel’s car, crawled down the block and hid in the bushes near Greenberg’s house.

Like clockwork, just over 30 minutes later, Greenberg turned around the corner of Jucca Street and headed towards 1804 on Vista de Mar. Greenberg's car drove past two parked cars, but Tannenbaum and Siegel slid into place so that they were not visible. After a second, Tannenbaum’s spit lit up the headlights, warning Carbo for a moment, who was waiting in the wings, ready to leave the scene right at the scene of the murder. When Greenberg tried to get out of his car, Carbo sped out of the shadows and drove five bullets into Greenberg's head.

Then Carbo ran to the stolen car and jumped next to Tannenbaum. Tannenbaum accelerated, and Siegel followed him from behind in his Cadillac. (The wrecked car was always a legal registered car, so the driver could claim that after the accident, either with a police car or a civilian civilian car, he just lost control of his car.). Two cars rushed to a predetermined place where they met with another accomplice waiting in the third car. The third guy turned out to be Champion Seagal, a little criminal who is always ready to help older boys with anything. Seagal immediately took Tannenbaum to San Francisco, where, on a mission, Tannenbaum jumped east by plane.

However, Siegel had a stone in his shoes, and this stone was called Sholom Bernstein.

The National Commission on Combating Crime had a system for resolving contentious issues. Bernstein could not be touched by Siegel if Siegel did not have permission from the Chief of Bernstein Territory in New York. New York bosses considered Bernstein one of their best people and refused to damage the hair on his head. But Siegel was adamant that Bernstein must die, so this forced Siegel to fly to New York to defend his opinion on the death penalty for Bernstein.

The National Criminal Commission is proud of its internal justice system. Each person who was targeted at was allowed to consider his case in a kangaroo court, usually someone from the organization. The man who attended Bernstein was none other than Abe Reles, who had not yet turned into a canary and was still very much alive. As was shown when he opposed his old friends, Reles was able to speak in words, and he could be very convincing when he received the urge, which, given his career, was quite common.

The meeting took place in a hotel room in the city center, while a group of nine people decided the fate of Bernstein, the appeal process of which is impossible. At first, Siegel defended his position, firmly declaring that Bernstein was at work and not only did not obey direct orders, but also disappeared from the scene before his work was completed. Siegel noted that the punishment for this was death. Period.

Now it was Reles & # 39; turn.

Reles began by saying that he did not call witnesses. He also admitted that his client, Bernstein, had indeed escaped from California before he could steal a much-needed second-killing machine. And then Reles went on to explain why his client was completely innocent of all the charges.

Reles told the group: “On the same day that Ben gave him the contract, Sholom received news from New York that his mom was going to make money. Sholem is a good boy. His mother is dying; he believes that he should go there. mom is. Ей легче идти, если ее мальчик сидит там у кровати, говоря хорошие вещи – как будто он любит ее, и ей становится лучше и тому подобное ".

«Так что Шолом даже не думает о контракте. Он ни о чем не думает. Он уезжает из Лос-Анджелеса и суетится домой, чтобы быть со своей матерью, когда она выезжает. Он ездит днем ​​и ночью. хочет держать, он хороший мальчик ".

Релес & # 39; поднял подбородок в воздух и поднял голос на октаву. «И эти джентльмены, – сказал он, – вот почему Шолом покинул город. Не из-за уклонения от контракта. Но из-за того, что его мама начинает».

Когда Релес закончил, в комнате не было сухого глаза; даже не Зигель. Бернштейн был единогласно оправдан, а Бен Сигел вылетел обратно в Калифорнию только для того, чтобы его собственный договор об убийстве был одобрен Национальным преступным синдикатом и в итоге казнен 20 июня 1947 года.

Gangster in America – Jack "Legs" Diamond – A Gangster Who Cannot Be Killed

Jack "Legs" Diamond was wounded and wounded many times, he was called "Gangster, which can not be killed."

Diamond, born July 10, 1897 from parents from Killruche, County Clare in Ireland, spent the first years of his life in Philadelphia. After his mother died of a viral infection, when Diamond was thirteen years old, he and his younger brother Eddie were in a group of violent people called "Boiler". Diamond was arrested more than a dozen times for various robberies and lawlessness, and after several months in a juvenile correctional colony, he was drafted into the army. Army life did not fit Diamond too well. He served less than a year, then decided to quit. He was soon caught and sentenced to three to five years in federal prison in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Diamond was released from prison in 1921, and he decided that New York was where he could make his fortune. Diamond and his brother Eddie moved to the Lower East Side of Manhattan, where they met with a gangster named Lucky Luciano. Diamond performed various ridiculous tasks for Luciano, including a bit of bootlegging along with Brooklyn thug Vanny Higgins. Diamond’s marriage with Florence Williams lasted only a few months (he was never at home). But his luck changed when Luciano introduced Diamond to Arnold's “Brain” to Rothstein, a notorious player and financial wizard. It was the break Diamond was waiting for, and he did his best.

Starting with Rothstein’s bodyguard, Rothstein invited Diamond as a partner in his lucrative heroin business. When his pockets filled with money and his need for Rothstein decreased, Diamond, along with his brother Eddie, decided to break up on his own. They thought they could make a bunch by hijacking trucks smuggling to other bandits, including Owen Madden and Big Bill Dwyer. This was not a good idea, since Madden and Dwyer were part of a larger syndicate of criminals, which included Luciano, the Dutch Schulz, and Meyer Lansky. In the blink of an eye, Brilliant became the persona non grata in the gangster world, and free fees for everyone who wanted to get rid of him.

In October 1924, Diamond drove a Dodge sedan along Fifth Avenue when, on 110th Street, a black limousine stretched along it. The shotgun shot Diamond from the rear window of the limo, but Diamond was too fast to be killed. He leaned over and hit the accelerator, no matter where he was going. Fortunately, he was able to escape from his shooters and take himself to a nearby hospital on Mount Sinai. Doctors removed the pellets in his head, face and legs, and when the police arrived to interrogate him, Diamond shook his head.

“I don’t know anything about this,” Diamond said to Pooh. "Why does someone want to shoot me? They must have been mistaken for a guy. ”

Diamond soon became friends with a gangster who did not want to kill him. His name was "Little Augie" Orgen. Orgen appointed Diamond his chief bodyguard. In turn, Organen gave Diamond an excellent share of his bootlegging and drug trafficking business. This friendship continued very well, until October 15, 1927, when Louis Lepke and Gurra Shapiro shot Organa at the corner of Norfolk and Delancey Street, and Almaz allegedly stood guard over Organa’s security. The diamond was wounded in the arms and legs (probably by accident), which required another trip to the hospital. After his release, he put an end to Lepke and Shapiro, and as a result, two killers gave Diamond Orgen bootlegging and drug companies a reward for being stupid enough to interfere with bullets destined for Orgen.

Now Diamond was on top of the world. He had enough money to scatter and became a stronghold in all of New York's nightclubs, usually with Kiki Roberts, a dancer in his hand, despite the fact that he was still married to his second wife, Alice Kenny. Diamond was regularly seen at the Cotton Club, El Fey, and the Stork Club, and his portrait often appeared in newspapers in which Diamond was not portrayed as a gangster, but as a handsome man in the city. Diamond soon became a co-owner of the Scottish Dude Club on Broadway between 54th and 55th Streets, and Jaimi Cohen became his partner. The Hotsy Totsy Club had a back room where Diamond often resolved business disputes, usually shooting their opponents and then executing them as if they were drunk.

The fall of the Diamond began when on July 13, 1929, three naughty dockers loaded up and made a fuss at the Hotsy Totsy Club. Diamond jumped with his gang member Charles Entratta to prevent his manager from being strangled. “I and Jack Diamond and I manage this place,” Diamond told the dockers. “If you don’t calm down, I will tear off your (abusive) heads.”

The conversation did not work, and the shooting soon began. When the smoke cleared, two dockers were killed and one wounded. As a result, Diamond and Entratt took this on the run. While they were hiding, Diamond decided that before he could return to what he was doing, the bartender and three witnesses needed to be killed. And soon they were. Cohen, too, was dead, and the girl with the hat check, the cashier and one waiter disappeared from the face of the earth. Diamond and Entratta, with everyone who could harm them, calmly turned to the police and said: "I heard they are looking for us." No charges were brought against them, but Diamond realized that New York was no longer safe for him, so he closed the Totsey club and moved to Green County in upstate New York.

In upstate New York, Diamond conducted a small bootlegging operation. But after months of impatience, he sent a message to the gangsters in New York, namely the Dutch Schulz and Owen Madden, who in his absence picked up Diamond rackets that he was returning to pick up what was his. This set a goal right on the back of the Diamond, and he became known as the "dove of the underworld."

Diamond was sitting in the bar of the Aratoga Hotel near Arch, New York, when three men dressed as duck hunters burst into the bar and filled Diamond with bullets. The doctors gave him little chance of survival, but after four weeks Diamond left the hospital and told the press: “Well, I did it again. No one can kill Jack Legs of Diamond. ”

A few months later, when Diamond left a roadside hotel in upstate, he was shot four times; in the back, leg, lung and liver, but he again overcame the chances that the doctors gave him and survived. He was not so lucky in December 1931 when, after a night of drinking at the Kenmore Hotel in Albany, he stumbled back drunk in the next room and fell asleep. The landlady later said that she had heard Diamond plead for his life before she heard three shots. Apparently, two bandits broke into Diamond's room, and while one held him by two ears, the other thrust three slugs into his brain.

The killers fled in a red packcard, putting an end to the myth that Jack “Legs” Diamond was a gangster who could not be killed.

Bandits – Big Bill Dwyer – King Runners Roma

He started as a simple docker, was engaged in bootlegging on a large scale and was known as the “King of Rum Runners”. Big Bill Dwyer made so much money that he partnered with famous gangsters at several chic nightclubs in New York. Dwyer also owned two professional hockey teams, including New York Americans, and was the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers football team. However, in the end, when Big Bill Dwyer passed away, he died due to attention, and the apartment broke down.

William Vincent Dwyer was born in 1883 in the kitchen of Hellish cuisine in western New York. At that time, two gangs, Hudson's Rags and Gophers, controlled Ada's kitchen, but Dwyer avoided joining both gangs and instead got a job at the docks as a stevedore for the International Union of Loaders (ILU). )

Working on the docks, Dwyer began his own bookmaker activity. After the Law of Wolstead, prohibiting the distribution of alcohol, to the money that he earned at bookmakers, was adopted in 1919, Dwyer went into the bootlegging business. Dwyer bought a fleet of steel-coated high-speed boats, each with a machine gun mounted, in case the scammers tried to seize the cargo. Dwyer also acquired several large ships traveling around the rum, which were necessary in order to unload an illegal hot dog from any boat that supplied it.

Dwyer went to Canada, England and the Caribbean to establish contacts with those who sold him the spirits needed to smuggle into the United States. Dwyer then created a system whereby his ships met ships that supplied him with alcohol, many miles out of the sea. There, the drink was handed over to Dwyer ships, and then quickly delivered to Dwyer speed boats, which were closer to the coast of New York.

Speedboats were unloaded at the docks, which were protected by Local 791 ILU, of which Dwyer was a member. From the docks, the liquor was transferred to several warehouses in the New York area. When the time came, trucks filled with illegal alcohol and escorted by convoys of team members transported alcohol across the country: heavy loads went to Florida, St. Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati and even New York. Orleans.

Dwyer was able to ship a large amount of booze to New York because he knew one simple fact: you had to bribe the police and the coast guard if you wanted to succeed in the bootlegging business. And Dwyer did this, passing thousands of dollars to the one who needs to be lubricated.

Dealing with cops from New York was easy. Police officers who did not have money to raise money were far apart. However, Dwyer was particularly adept at recruiting members of the coast guard to look the other way when his speedboats entered the waters of New York.

Dwyer's first contact was the Olsen Coast Guard Junior Officer. Through Olsen, Dwyer met dozens of Coast Guard, whom he called "Sentinels," who could take bribes. Dwyer would bring these Sentinels into the bright lights of New York, where he could feed them sumptuous food, take them to Broadway shows and even get a chic hotel room occupied by a lady of her choice, for which Dwyer would pay too much. As soon as the Guardsman received a bribe from Dwyer, he was informed that he could earn hundreds, and sometimes thousands of dollars more, if he could attract other guards to protect Dwyer's supplies.

Soon, Dwyer made so much money in bootlegging that he was considered the largest distributor of illegal alcohol in the entire United States of America. However, Dwyer had one huge problem that he needed help to solve. Whenever one of his trucks drove out of New York to distribute booze to other parts of the country, they were vulnerable to capture by the hundreds of hijackers who were operating throughout the country. Dwyer knew that in order to prevent this from happening, he had to take on partners – members of Italian mobs and Jewish mobs. Since he earned millions of profits, Dwyer did not mind and, of course, could afford to share wealth. The problem was that Dwyer considered himself to be nothing more than a businessman and himself was not a gangster. Dwyer needed someone from the underworld who could make the contacts Dwyer needed to continue acting without fear of being hijacked.

Almost by accident, this man fell right on Dwyer's knees. In 1924, two Dwyer shipments were captured in upstate New York. Dwyer relied on the cops on his payroll to find out who was responsible for the thefts. It soon became known to Dwyer that the criminal who was arrested for theft was none other than Owenie Madden, an Irishman who grew up in Liverpool, England, before he emigrated to New York as a teenager. Madden was a vicious swindler nicknamed “Assassin” and once controlled a gang of a killer gopher in “Hell's Kitchen”.

Dwyer paid the one who needed to pay to drop charges against Madden, with the order: “Bring me, Owen Madden. I want to talk to him. I have a business proposal that we need to discuss. ”

Madden found out who his benefactor was and what was expected of him to meet with Dwyer. The two men met at Dwyer’s office in Lowe’s Times Square State Building. There is no record or transcript of this meeting, but TJ English in his masterpiece about the Irish gangsters by the name of Paddy Wake said that the conversation between Madden and Dwyer could look something like this:

“You have a problem,” Madden would say to Dwyer. "The gangsters collected your trucks like sedentary ducks, and what are you going to do about it?"

"That's why I called you here."

"You have to organize shooters and cherry pickers, not to mention bulls (policemen) and police (politicians)."

"You're right. I need to stop the hijacking. I need a place where you can make your own drink, right here in the city. Protected by the Tiger and the tinkers. And I need outlets – speakeasies, night clubs, you name it. "

"You need a lot, my friend.

"Are you with me?"

“Give me one reason.”

"I can make you rich."

"Pal, you and I are two drops of water."

And that was the beginning of the Irish Mafia in New York, which would then combine with Italian and Jewish crowds to control the bootlegging business throughout the United States. A group of three ethnic mobs was known as Combine.

With millions of Dwyer, Madden led the establishment of the Phoenix Bread Drink Company, located on 26th Street and 10th Avenue, in the heart of the hell kitchen, where both Madden and Dwyer grew up. This red-brick building that comprised the entire block was originally the Clausen & Flanagan Brewery, which was created to produce and sell beer that no real beer lover would ever miss. The beer produced in Phoenix was called Madden & # 39; s No 1.

With Dwyer, basically a backstage man, Madden became the architect who created and raised his empire. Madden invited a former taxi owner named Larry Fay as the leader of several high-end establishments that were needed to sell Madden No. 1, plus all the scotch, rum, vodka, cognac and champagne that the factory smuggled into the country. city. One such place was El Fay at 107 West 54th Street.

The main attraction in El Fey was Texas Guinan, an obscene cabaret / comedian who was later copied by May West. To encourage Ginan to work in El Fay, Madden and Dwyer made Ginan a partner. Ginan became famous for her wise cracks, which she spewed between cracks from the nutcracker or shoes from a piercing whistle, while she was sitting on a high chair in the main room. Ginan's signature read: "Hello, Sucker," and that is how she greeted all the well-cured clients of El Faya.

When the singer or dancer finished their performance at El Fey, Guinan exhorted the crowd: “Give the little lady a big big hand!”

One day, a ban agent, whom Madden or Dwyer could not buy, raided El Fey. He went to Ginan, laid a hand on her shoulder and told his agent: "Give the little lady very large handcuffs."

Dwyer did what he did best, Ginan was released from prison, and El Fay soon jumped again, making all the participants really very rich.

Madden and Dwyer also collaborated with former bootlegger Sherman Billingsley at the very fashionable Stork Club on East 53rd Street. Two Irish gangsters spread their wings in upstate Manhattan when they bought Club De Luxe from former heavyweight boxing champion Jack Johnson. They incorporated Big Frenchy De Mange as their operating partner and changed their name to Cotton Club. At the cotton club, De Mange introduced a White Only reception policy, despite the fact that waiters, dancers and headline artists such as Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Nicholas Brothers, all were black.

Nevertheless, the Cotton Club was a huge success, spending a lot of money from the center, investing tons of money in the pockets of Dwyer and Madden.

In 1925, Dwyer was arrested for trying to bribe members of the Coast Guard during a special operation led by the Prohibition Bureau. Dwyer was sentenced to two years in prison, but after 13 months he was released for good behavior. With Dwyer at the bank, Frank Costello took Dwyer's business to bootlegging.

While he was in prison, a dull Dwyer told one of his cellmates. “Too bad I never saw a case of whiskey. I spent years in daily fear for my life, always expecting me to be arrested, always dealing with scammers and double crosses, and now look at me. My wife is heartbroken, and I'm worse than breaking.

As we shall see, this is not entirely true.

When Dwyer went outside again, he went out of the bootlegging business, leaving the operation to produce rum to Costello and Madden. To pass the time, Dwyer began to invest in a legitimate business, especially in sports teams.

In 1926, boxing promoter Tex Rickard tricked Duer into buying Hamilton Tigers from the National Hockey League. Dwyer did this, and he transferred his team to New York Madison Square Garden and renamed them New York Americans. As smart as Dwyer was in the bootlegging business, he was just as stupid as he was running a hockey team. Dwyer’s winning strategy boiled down to tearing his pockets with bootlegging money: basically, they overpaid everyone on his team. The average hockey player earned between 1,500 and 2,000 dollars a year, and Dwyer signed a three-year contract with Billy Birch for 25 thousand dollars. Shorty Green also got a huge raise when Dwyer signed a $ 5,000 contract with him.

Being at heart an old fraudster, Dwyer took an active part in managing his team, even trying to customize the game. Dwyer paid with the referees on goal to manage his team, who scored a goal if the puck just touched the goal line, instead of completely passing the goal line, which was the rule.

During a game in 1927 at Madison Square Garden, a goal referee held by Dwyer in his pocket for some unknown reason started taunting Ottawa's goalkeeper Alex Connell. Connell responded with a blow from his hockey stick to the referee’s bow. Dwyer got angry at the actions of the Ottawa goalkeeper (you did not touch one of Dwyer's employees), and Connell was ordered to leave the city quickly after the game. The police brought Connell to the train station and defended him until the train left the city. After the train left the station, a man asked Connell if he was Ottawa's goalkeeper Alex Connell. Connell was afraid for his life, told the stranger no. And, as a result, he lived to see other hockey goalkeepers.

Bypassing the league rule that a person cannot own two hockey teams, in 1929, Dwyer, who used former boxing champion Benny Leonard as a leader, acquired the Pittsburgh NHL pirates. In 1930, Dwyer put his dirty fingers into the newly created National Football League, buying the Dayton Triangles for $ 2,500. Dwyer moved the team to Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and renamed them Brooklyn Dodgers.

Three years later, Dwyer, again overpaying all his players, began to lose so much money that he sold the Brooklyn Dodgers to two former New York Giant players – Chris Cagle and John Simms for 25 thousand dollars. Despite the fact that he sold the team 10 times what he paid, Dwyer estimated that he still lost $ 30,000 in the three years he owned the team.

In 1934, with American sports teams (he still owned Americans from New York, but they had bloody money), Dwyer bought the famous racecourse in a tropical park in Miami, Florida.

However, the roof fell on Dwyer when in 1935 he was charged with gambling. Dwyer defeated this case, but then the government did the same with him as with Al Capone: he was charged with tax evasion. Those charges were stuck, and Dwyer was stripped of all of his assets except New York Americans, and at home in Bell Harbor, Queens. Almost penniless, Dwyer no longer had the money to keep New York Americans afloat.

In 1937, the National Hockey League temporarily took control of New York Americans. To show the NHL that he was financially solvent, Dwyer lent $ 20,000 from Red Dutton. However, instead of paying salaries to his team, Dwyer decided to try to increase his money in the game of dice. It didn’t go too well when Dwyer flew out and lost all twenty thousand. Unable to pay his team and unable to raise more capital, the NHL finally kicked out Dwyer and finally took control of New York Americans. Frustrated and depressed, Dwyer retired to his home in Bel Harbor.

On December 10, 1943, Big Bill Dwyer, the “King of Rum Runners,” died at the age of 63. Dwyer was reportedly penniless at the time of his death; his only advantage was a roof over his head.