Bandits – Carlo Gambino

He was a quiet man who dressed quietly and, as you know, never lost his temper. But there is no doubt that Carlo Gambino with his huge hawk nose and a mysterious smile was one of the most powerful bosses of all time.

Gambino was born in Palermo, Sicily, on August 24, 1902. In the Palermo region, called Caccamo, where Gambino grew up, there were such intense mafia presence that the police and even the military were afraid to join it. domain This left the mafia with impunity to rule this area, knowing that no matter what they do, this will not be reported to the police, if the police at all take care of what happened there.

Carlo's mother's maiden name was Castelano, and she used her influence on her family, which was a mafia, to introduce Gambino to “Men of Respect” when Gambino was just a teenager. Gambino, who was small in stature and only 5 feet 7 inches, quietly impressed his superiors with his calm, his intelligence and his ability to do what needed to be done, even if it meant killing someone who needed to be killed.

In 1921, before his twentieth birthday, Gambino was awarded for good work, introduced to the mafia, or what was known in Italy as the “Honored Society”. However, due to blood feud by Benito Mussolini against the mafia (Mussolini arrested many mafiosi, including the mafia boss Don Vito Cashio Ferro, who was sentenced to life imprisonment), many mafiosi, including Gambino, decided that Sicily was too dangerous for them to exist the way they are used to. As a result, there was a huge outflow of mafioso to that golden mountain across the Atlantic Ocean, which was called America.

At the end of 1921, Gambino left Sicily on the charterer SS Vincenzo Florio, who was heading to America. Throughout the Gambino trip, there was nothing but wine and anchovies, which, apart from olive oil, were the only nutrients on the ship.

SS Vincenzo Florio moored in Norfolk, Virginia on December 23, 1921, and Gambino landed as an illegal immigrant. Dressed in an elegant three-piece suit and black fedora, Gambino walked down the ramp in search of a car, he was told that when he leaves for Palermo, he will be waiting for him when he marches in America, with flashing lights at the end of the dock. He noticed the car, and when he approached it, Gambino saw Castellano's cousin, sitting behind the wheel. The two men hugged, and after a few seconds they headed to New York.

When Gambino arrived in New York, he was pleased to find that his cousins ​​Castellano had already rented his apartment on Fleet Street in Brooklyn, not far from the waterfront. They also forced Gambino to work for a shipping company owned by his cousins ​​Peter and Paul Castellano. Soon, Gambino moved into an illegal bootlegging business, which is led by his friend from Palermo, Tommy Lucchese. The ban was introduced as a result of the adoption in 1919 of the Volstead Act, which prohibited the production, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages, but not consumption. One thing led to another, and soon Gambino became the main cog in the team of Joe "Boss" Masseria, the most powerful mafia in America.

However, another mafioso escaped the wrath of Mussolini and arrived in America in the mid-1920s. His name was Salvatore Maranzano, the second in the team of Don Vito Cascio Ferro in Sicily. Maranzano believed that Sicilian mafiosi are much superior to those in America, so it is natural that he should become the main boss of the mafia in America. This did not suit Masseria, and the result was the Castellammarese war, which flooded the streets of New York with many corpses from 1929 to 31.

Soon, the Mafia team joined such mafiosi as Lucky Luciano, Frank Costello, Albert Anastasia and Vito Genovese, who were well connected with the Jewish gangsters Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel. However, since Masseria did not like his people to do business with non-Sicilians (Costello, Castilla's real name was from Calabria), Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese waited their time, hoping that both Masseria and Maranzano might knock into each other. turned off so that young people can take control of all their operations.

However, it was Gambino who took the first step in rectifying this situation. Feeling that he was on the losing side of the battle, Gambino secretly approached Maranzano and offered to jump to the side of Maranzano. Maranzano readily agreed, and soon Luciano, Costello, Anastasia and Genovese also wanted to join the forces of Maranzano. Maranzano accepted their offer, provided that they would end once and for all with Masseria. This task was completed on April 15, 1931, when Luciano lured Masseria to the Nuova Villa Tammaro restaurant on Coney Island. While Luciano was relaxing in the bathroom, Siegel, Genovese, Anastasia and the Jewish killer Red Levin burst through the front door and filled Leo with Masseria, making him completely dead and ending the Castellammarez war.

Maranzano immediately called for a meeting of all the main mafiosi in the city (reportedly more than 500 people) in a warehouse in the Bronx. At this meeting, Maranzano said: “Whatever happened in the past, it's over. There should no longer be hatred between us. Those who have lost someone in the war must forgive and forget. ”

Then Maranzano formed five families, each of which had a boss and a younger boss. With two upper people, each family would have capithemes or captains who would control the rest of the family: soldiers or soldiers. The five bosses were Joe Bonanno, Joe Profaci, Lucky Luciano, Tommy Luquese and Vincent Mangano. Albert Anastasia became the head of Mangano, and Carlo Gambino became the captain in the Mangano family. Of course, Maranzano made himself the “Boss of All Bosses” (Capo Di Tutti Capi), who didn’t mix very well with the rest of the young mafiosi.

Despite all the pleasant conversations that “there is no more hatred between us,” Maranzano had a secret plan to kill Luciano, Genovese and Costello, people whom Maranzano considered ambitious and a threat to his rule. Maranzano urged the vicious Irish killer Vincent "Crazy Dog" Cole to eliminate his alleged rivalry. Maranzano paid Cole $ 25,000 on the spot, and another $ 25,000 was due when a dirty act was made. To set a trap, Maranzano invited Luciano, Genovese and Costello to his office in downtown Manhattan.

However, Luciano learned about the plot through an informer close to Maranzano, who is believed to be Tommy Lucchese. Instead of appearing in the office of Maranzano, Luciano sent four alleged Jewish killers to an alleged meeting led by Red Levin, one of those who killed Masseria. Four men, posing as detectives, made their way past the bodyguards of Maranzano in an external office. Then they burst into the office of Maranzano, where they were stabbed to death and shot. Leaving the building, the four assassins ran into Crazy Dog Cole. They told him not to worry – Maranzano was dead, and the police were on their way. Cole turned his face, whistling a happy tune, earning $ 25,000 without firing a shot.

Soon Luciano called bosses from four other mafia families and told them that the title “Boss of All Bosses” had been removed along with Maranzano. Luciano then formed the National Crime Commission, which included the Jewish bandits Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel, and the Dutchman Schulz.

Gambino, now firmly entrenched as captain in the Mangano family, has become the largest source of money in the entire New York Mafia. And in the mafia, money brings prestige.

In 1932, Gambino married his cousin, Catherine Castelano Carlo, and eventually Catherine Gambino raised three sons and a daughter. (Marriage to the first cousin was common in Italy, and it was not objected to in the United States as it is today. In fact, marrying a cousin is currently illegal in most, but not all states. Editor’s Note : my paternal grandparents and On the side were cousins ​​who married Sicily in the early 1900s.)

When the ban was lifted in 1933, Gambino was about to make money on the legal business, but he did it illegally. While Ban was thriving in the Mafia's illegal sales, Gambino planned days when he knew the Ban would end. To achieve his goals, Gambino gathered as many illegal personnel as possible; in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and even Maryland. When the ban ended and alcohol prices skyrocketed, Gambino had the largest system of illegal distribution of alcohol on the east coast of America. And since he himself made a drink and did not pay any state taxes, Gambino could undermine the legitimate distributors, thereby earning himself and the Mangano family a small fortune in the mid-late 1930s.

The outbreak of World War II gave Gambino another opportunity to earn even more illegal money thanks to the wartime stamp racket. Since war is inevitable against both Germany and Japan, on August 28, 1941, the United States Government created the Price Management Authority (OPA), which was tasked with printing and distributing food stamps to the American public. Without these brands, people could not buy gasoline, tires, shoes, nylon, sugar, fuel oil, coffee, meat and food. Gambino believed that the only way he could acquire food brands for sale on the black market was to simply steal them.

Gambino sent his best trusted crackers and second-rate people to the vaults at the Price Management Office, and they came out with food stamps worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. When some low-level OPA employees realized that the mafiosi had stolen the rations, they decided to make a deal themselves by stealing the rations themselves and selling them to Gambino and his guys, of course, at a bargain price. basement prices. Gambino wondered why risking the marks of the diet with the possibility of being caught. Thus, he accepted the perverse offer of OPA employees and began to buy rations from them.

The beauty of this scheme was that Gambino already had a ready-made distribution network: its network of illegal distributors of booze. In October 1963, Mafia informer Joe Valachi testified before Senator Arkansas John L. McClellan, Investigative Subcommittee on Public Transactions, that Gambino made a profit of more than $ 1 million in just one deal with rations.

As the experienced businessman he was, Gambino knew that he would not be able to live a secular life without reporting substantial revenues to the government. Thus, Gambino invested the money he earned from his illegal operations, valued at several million dollars, in legal enterprises such as meat markets, pizzerias, importers of olives and cheeses, cartographic companies, clothing factories, bakeries and restaurants.

By 1951, the Mangano family, thanks to Gambino's incredible ability to generate income, was one of the most prosperous in the mafia. The problem was that Mangano did not get along with his boss Anastasia. Mangano envied Anastasia’s proximity with other bosses such as Frank Costello and Lucky Luciano, who was in exile in Italy; the pardon clause he received from the United States government after serving 9 years in prison on trumped-up charges of prostitution. Several times Mangano physically attacked Anastasia, a stupid move, as the younger and strongest Anastasia easily defeated her boss in a fist fight.

With numerous rumors that Mangano was preparing to kill Anastasia, Anastasia decided to deliver the first blow with the blessing of crime boss Frank Costello. On April 19, 1951, the body of Phil Mangano, the brother of Vincent Mangano, was found in swamps near Sheephead Bay. He received five headshots. When the police investigating the killing tried to contact Vincent Mangano about the death of his brother, they could not find his tracks. Vincent Mangano's body was never found.

A few days later, Anastasia sat down with the other bosses and explained that he had killed Mangano before Mangano could kill him. With the support of Costello, Anastasia was appointed head of the Mangano family, and the name was changed to the Anastasia family. Anastasia made Frank Skalis and Joe Adonis their boss, and he gave his capo Carlo Gambino more people and more power in the organization.

However, the reign of Anastasia lasted less than seven years. Anastasia constantly banged the head of the evil crime boss Vito Genovese, who was going to capture all the rackets in New York, even if it meant killing the other bosses one by one. Anastasia received a terrible blow when his younger boss Joe Adonis was deported back to Italy as an unwanted foreigner. Anastasia knew that his days were numbered when, in early 1956, Frank Costello was shot in the head with a Genoese henchman Vincent "Chin" Gigante. Costello survived the shooting, and in the trial of the Giant, Costello, faithful to the Mafia code of Omerta, refused to call Giant his striker.

However, this significantly reduced Costello's power in the mafia, and at the insistence of Genovese, Costello was expelled from among the bosses in the mafia commission. This left Anastasia without a close ally and put Anastasia in a vulnerable position. Soon after, Anastasia, the other junior boss Frank Skalis, was shot dead while shopping for fruits and vegetables on Arthur Avenue in the Bronx.

The last shoe fell when Anastasia was shot dead on October 25, 1957, while sitting in a barber chair at the Park Sheridan Hotel in downtown Manhattan. Now that Anastasia is dead, Genovese called to sit down with the other bosses and suggested that Carlo Gambino, whom he had plotted to kill Anastasia, take control of Anastasia's family. The commission agreed and they renamed the family in Gambino.

The greedy Genovese called for meeting with all the criminal authorities, bosses, captains and respected mafia men in America, which was supposed to take place in the sleepy city of Apalachin, New York, at the home of Joseph Barbara, capo to the Buffalo crime family, crime boss Stefano Magaddino. There were several items on the Genovese agenda, but the main one was that Genovese would declare himself “Capo di Tutti Capi”, or “Boss of All Bosses,” a name that was vacant after Salvatore's death. Maranzano

On November 17, 1957, dozens of bandits reached the house of Barbara. The group included crime bosses John Sculish from Cleveland, Sam Giancan from Chicago, Frank DeSimone from California, Santo Trafiante from Florida, Gerardo Catena and Frank Majuri from New Jersey, as well as Carlo Gambino, Joe Profaci, Tommy Luchese and Vito Genovese. from New York.

However, before the festivities began, State Sergeant Edgar Roswell stormed the house along with a dozen state soldiers. Roswell later said he became suspicious when he saw Joseph Barbara Jr. reserve a hotel for about a dozen people. Roswell said that he then drove past the residence of Barbara and saw dozens of parked luxury cars parked on and next to Barbara's estate. Roswell said he called for heavy support, and when his soldiers arrived, they made their move.

Later, there were rumors that Meyer Lansky himself, who did not particularly like Vito Genovese, warned the state about the upcoming mafia convention.

Be that as it may, when the soldiers stormed the house, the mafiosi, like in a Chinese fire training, scattered in all directions. Men in expensive suits jumped through open windows, and if they could not get to their cars, they drove him on foot through the woods, ruining their patent leather shoes. Sam Giancana safely escaped through the forest, as did Bonanno, boss Carmine Galente. But both men were in a mess; their costumes are destroyed by thorny bushes. Some cars left the hotel before the checkpoint was set up, but most did not. When the dust cleared, 58 members of the Mafia were detained and ordered to empty their pockets. For 58 people, $ 300,000 in cash was found, making the state police even more suspicious of the meeting.

What was remarkable in the meeting was people who decided not to attend. Apart from Lansky, Frank Costello, Carlo Marcello from New Orleans, and Lansky's friend Joseph "Doc" Streicher were absent.

Of the 58 detainees, 27 were accused of obstructing the administration of justice, 20 of which were convicted of refusing to answer questions about the purpose of the meeting. One of the convicts was Gambino's cousin Paul Castellano, who as a result spent a year in prison.

Прерванная встреча, больше всего на свете, привела к падению Вито Дженовезе. Мало того, что он не получил высокое звание «Босс всех боссов», он стал изгоем в мафии; высмеивают за глупость и жадность за то, что в одно и то же время зовут так много важных людей в одно и то же место для своих собственных целей.

На следующий день после рейда газеты всей страны опубликовали на первой полосе истории об этом инциденте. Мужчины мафии больше не могли утверждать, что мафия не существует. Полиция и директор ФБР Дж. Эдгар Гувер, который годами отрицал существование мафии, неистовствовали, оказывая сильное давление на операции мафии.

Хотя сначала Карло Гамбино казался жертвой обстоятельств, коварный ветеран толпы замышлял, чтобы превратить инцидент в свою пользу. На самом деле, было предположение, что Гамбино знал о набеге заранее и пошел туда нарочно, чтобы никто не заподозрил его в предательстве; что имело бы смысл в свете дальнейшего развития событий.

Поскольку Дженовезе все еще не оправился от потери лица, Гамбино вступил в сговор с Фрэнком Костелло, Мейером Лански и Лаки Лучано (все еще в изгнании в Италии, но может свободно перемещаться на Кубу, чтобы встретиться со своими приятелями), чтобы Дженовезе по шею многомиллионная международная сделка с наркотиками. Даже мысль, что торговля наркотиками была запрещена мафией, жадный Дженовезе не мог устоять перед желанием сделать тонну теста.

Когда пришло время, Гамбино сообщил в Бюро по борьбе с наркотиками о сделке с наркотиками, что привело к аресту Дженовезе. На суде Дженовезе Гамбино заплатил лжесвидетелю по имени Нельсон Кантеллопс, который настаивал на том, что Дженовезе был не только вовлечен в эту конкретную сделку с наркотиками, но на самом деле участвовал в десятках сделок с наркотиками на протяжении многих лет. , В результате Дженовезе был приговорен к 15 годам тюрьмы. Дженовезе отсидел чуть более десяти лет, прежде чем он умер в тюрьме 14 февраля 1969 года.

После смерти Анастасии, Дженовезе в тюрьме, Лучано в изгнании, Фрэнка Костелло в основном из мафиозной петли, Джо Профачи становится старше и слабее, а Джо Бонанно имеет относительно небольшую преступную семью, Карло Гамбино, несомненно, стал самым влиятельным боссом мафии в Америке. Его команда, состоящая из более чем 500 человек, выходивших на улицы, включала его младшего босса Джо Биондо, его консилиера Джозефа Риккобоно и капоса Арманд "Томми" Рава, Аниелло "Мистер Нил" Деллакроче, Пол Кастеллано, Кармин "Доктор" Ломбардоцци, Джозеф " Джо Пайни "Армоне и Кармин" "Колеса Вагона" Фатико.

Гамбино расширил свои предприятия по всей территории Соединенных Штатов. Помимо Нью-Йорка, Гамбино держал свои пальцы в банке в Чикаго, Лос-Анджелесе, Майами, Бостоне, Сан-Франциско и Лас-Вегасе. Гамбино также управлял могущественным Международным союзом грузчиков, который контролировал все доки в Нью-Йорке, главном порту для импорта в Америку.

После того, как Джо Валачи стал первым известным информатором мафии, Гамбино усилил правило, запрещающее продажу наркотиков в его команде. Рациональным для Гамбино было то, что наказание за продажу наркотиков было настолько суровым, что мужчины могли бы стать крысами при аресте, а не сидеть в тюрьме, как это делали «настоящие мужчины» мафии в прошлом. Семейная политика Гамбино гласила: «Сделай и умри», и он соблюдал это правило без исключений.

Катаясь на вершине кучи мафии, Карло Гамбино стал популярной фигурой на улицах Маленькой Италии в Нью-Йорке. В то время как другие боссы забаррикадировались в своих особняках с вооруженным телохранителем, охранной сигнализацией и электрифицированными заборами, Гамбино безнаказанно гулял по улицам, останавливаясь, чтобы поговорить со старыми друзьями, а также покупать овощи и фрукты у уличных торговцев. Гамбино отправился в Феррару на Гранд-стрит, между Малберри и Моттом, за выпечкой. Затем он прогуливался по кварталу, чтобы купить итальянское мясо, сыры и итальянские деликатесы в Алеве, на углу Малберри и Гранд.

Начиная с марта 1970 года у Гамбино начались проблемы с законом. Пока он прогуливался по Бруклинской улице, Гамбино был окружен полицией Нью-Йорка и сотрудниками ФБР. Они арестовали Гамбино и обвинили его в разработке схемы кражи 30 миллионов долларов наличными у бронетранспортной компании, расположенной в Бронксе. В конечном итоге Гамбино было предъявлено обвинение, но дело было прекращено из-за отсутствия доказательств.

Это заставило федералов попробовать другую тактику, чтобы убрать Гамбино с улиц. В 1966 году правительство издало приказ о депортации в Гамбино, но по какой-то причине этот приказ так и не был выполнен. В начале 1971 года, после того, как жена Гамбино Кэтрин умерла от рака, федералы действительно попытались выполнить этот приказ, но, услышав о его неминуемой опасности, коварный Гамбино симулировал серьезный сердечный приступ. Федералы были возмущены уловкой Гамбино, поэтому они попросили Службу общественного здравоохранения США дать Гамбино полную медицинскую помощь. Федералы были в ужасе, когда выяснилось, что у Гамбино действительно было тяжелое заболевание сердца. Это было подтверждено в 1972 году, когда Гамбино был срочно доставлен из своего дома в 2230 Ocean Parkway в Бруклине в больницу Колумба на Манхэттене с обширным сердечным приступом. Почему больница в Бруклине не подходит для Гамбино, так и не было раскрыто.

Выздоравливая дома, Гамбино нарушил один из принятых им законов – «Наркотики и смерть». Исполняющий обязанности генуэзского босса Томас «Томми Райан» Эболи обратился к Гамбино с предложением «не пропустить», чтобы заключить многомиллионную сделку с Луисом Цивилло, которая, по мнению федералов, является крупнейшим торговцем наркотиками в Америке. Проблема заключалась в том, что у Эболи, бывшего менеджера по боксу и печально известного игрока, не было 4 миллионов долларов, необходимых для продолжения операции. Гамбино получил от Эболи 4 миллиона долларов, но потерял все, когда федералы арестовали Цивилло и конфисковали наркотики и деньги. Когда Гамбино обратился к Эболи с просьбой пропустить 4 миллиона долларов, Эболи вывернул карманы наизнанку, показывая, что у него нет денег.

Это не очень понравилось Гамбино. В результате, примерно в 1 час ночи, 16 июля 1972 года, Эболи был застрелен пять раз, когда он выходил из квартиры своей подруги в Краун-Хайтс, Бруклин. Эболи скончался на месте, и Гамбино имел достаточно влияния в мафиозной комиссии, чтобы приказать, чтобы его близкий друг, генуэзский капитан Фрэнк «Фунци» Тьери, стал новым боссом семьи Дженовезе. И так было сделано.

У Гамбино была еще одна неудача, когда в начале 1973 года его 29-летний племянник Эммануэль "Мэнни" Гамбино был похищен с целью получения выкупа. Эта же банда ранее похитила капитана криминальной семьи Гамбино Фрэнка "Фрэнки Воп" Манзо за 100 000 долларов. После того, как эта сумма была заплачена за безопасное возвращение Мэнзо, банда стала более амбициозной с похищением Мэнни Гамбино – на этот раз прося $ 200 000. Гамбино пытался торговаться, предлагая им всего 50 000 долларов. Вскоре после этого тело Мэнни Гамбино было найдено в сидячем положении на свалке в Нью-Джерси, рядом со складом боеприпасов военно-морских сил Эрла. 1 июня 1973 года вырожденный игрок Роберт Сентер признал себя виновным в непредумышленном убийстве и был приговорен к пятнадцати годам тюремного заключения. Очевидно, Сентер упал в долг перед Гамбино, и было легче убить Гамбино, чем погасить долг.

После того, как смерть его племянника усугубила агонию смерти его жены, Гамбино стал отшельником в своем доме на Оушен-Паркуэй. Он окружил себя членами семьи, прежде всего его двоюродным братом Полом Кастельяно. К 1975 году стало ясно, что состояние сердца Гамбино не позволит ему жить намного дольше. Поэтому он начал планировать преемственность в качестве главы преступной семьи Гамбино. Желая сохранить власть в крови своей семьи, Гамбино помазал своего двоюродного брата Пола Кастельяно, чтобы сменить его.

Это не очень понравилось остальным Гамбино, которые ожидали, что давний мафиози Аниелло Деллакроче станет естественным преемником Гамбино. Чтобы успокоить Деллакроче, Гамбино передал ему все манхэттенские ракетки, контролируемые семьей Гамбино. И это действительно был большой подарок.

15 октября 1976 года Карло Гамбино сделал последний вздох, когда его сердце, наконец, сдалось. Похороны Гамбино были одними из самых тщательно продуманных за всю историю Бруклина. Более 100 автомобилей приняли участие в похоронной процессии, которая завершилась на кладбище Святого Иоанна в Квинсе, Нью-Йорк; на том же кладбище был похоронен его давний друг Чарльз «Счастливчик» Лучано.

В фильме 1985 года «Честь Приззи», снятом Джоном Хастоном и Джеком Николсоном в главной роли, актер Уильям Хикки сыграл Дона Коррадо Прицци, персонажа по мотивам Дона Карло Гамбино.

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